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BIO 111 Exam 1

Define ploidy The number of copies of each type of chromosome a particular cell has
Differentiate between haploid, diploid, and triploid haploid - one individual chromosome of each type diploid- pair of chromosomes triploid - 3 of each type (*only in plants)
Define aneuploidy Not having the true/correct number of chromosomes
What are the three universal requirements for cell division? Replication of genetic material Accurate segregation of genetic material Division of the cytoplasm
How do bacteria divide? Binary fission
Describe binary fission Replication and segregation are coupled: Replication begins at origin of replication of DNA and happens bidirectionally around until it reaches the terminus Segregation is an active process which requires the FtsZ protein to form a septum for segreation
How is FtsZ regulated and in what organisms is this done? Cyanobacteria; if light is present, KaiA,B, or C are needed to develop FtsZ
Define karyotype The number of chromosomes an organism has
Each chromatid has is own individual __________. centromere
Differentiate between centromere, kinetochore, and telomeres Centromeres hold sister chromatids together and are made of repeated DNA Kinetochores are proteins at the centromere that attach to microtubles Telomeres cap chromosomes for protection
What are three problems the cell must solve regarding replication? Chromosomes must be compacted Must keep chromatids attached because chromosomes are not labelled Release of attachment is irreversible
How are chromosomes compacted in the cell? DNA wraps around a histome (4 protein charged); 1 histome forms two tetrameres; many histomes form nucleosome; many nucleosomes form loops called solenoids; solenoids coil and wrap around protein scaffolds
What are the 5 phases of the eukaryotic cell cycle? 1. G1; 2. G2; 3.S; 4.Mitosis; 5.Cytokinesis
How is the cell cycle controlled? Phosphorylation events: Regulatory protein cyclins enter the cell during mitosis and allow cyclin-dependent kinase enzymes to phosphorolate transcription factors necessary for gene expression
When are the 3 checkpoints in the cell cycle? The beginning between G1/S boundary G2/M transition Prior to anaphase (spindle checkpoint)
What is the overall function of mitosis? To segregate chromosomes
Microtubule dynamics?
What holds sister chromatids together? Cohesion proteins
Describe prophase (4) 1. Chromosomes condense 2. Nuclear membrane breaks down 3. Spindles form 4. Chromosomes attach to spindle at kinetochore
Describe metaphase (3) 1. Chromosomes move to metaphase plate 2. Centromeres attached to opposite poles via microtubles 3. Chromosomes are under tension
Anaphase (3) 1.Centromeres separate 2. Each chromatid is now a single chromosome/ chromosome number doubles but DNA amount remains 3. Chromosomes pulled to opposite poles
Telophase (2) 1. Chromosomes decondense 2. Nuclear membrane forms
What are the the two movements in anaphase A. chromosomes move to poles B. poles move apart
How are cohesions degraded to separate centromeres in anaphase? By protease; signal comes from anaphase promotion complex at spindle checkpoint
Differentiate cytokinesis in animals and plant Animals - use a contractile ring: actin/myosin microfilaments pinch the cell producing a cleavage furrow Plants - Cell plate forms between cells
What is the overall purpose of Meiosis? Segregation of cells to produce haploid gametes
Why aren't sister chromatids identical in meiosis Recombination/ Crossing-over
At the end of meiosis I are cells diploid or haploid? Haploid
Define homolog Members of a chromosome pair
What are the 3 main differences between meiosis I and mitosis? 1. Homologues pair in PI 2. Homologous pair aligns at MI 3. Homologoues separate in AI
How do homologes pair in PI? Held together by proteins(chiasmata) forming the synaptonomal complex
When can crossing over be detected? When new combinations of alleles are generated in a chromosomes
How does MII differ from Mitosis? Results in 4 haploid cells; No other differences
What happens between MI & MII Interkinesis... chromosomes unwind; NO replication
Define autosomal Genes on nonsex chromosoomes
When can crossover occur? PI
What rearranges chromosomes? Crossing over
Describe prokaryotic cells (in terms of cellular division characteristics) DNA is spread through out the cytoplasm in 1 circular chromosome
In anaphase of mitosis chromosome number _______. doubles
* Review number meiosis chart *
Can crossing over occur between sister chromatids NO
Define gene Portion of DNA with info. necessary to a specific trait
Define locus location of a gene on a chromosome
Define allele Different forms of a gene
Define genotype Alleles carried by one individual
Define phenotype Appearance of individual/ how genes get expressed
Define true-breeding Always showing a better trait
What is the principle of segregation? (2) Maternal and paternal alleles segregate during gamete formation; Homologs disjoin during anaphase I so alleles separate then as well
In a monohybrid cross, the outcomes are... equally likely
Define dihybrid cross 2 factor cross
In a dihybrid cross, many combinations occur if ...? 2 loci are independent from each other
What's the principle of independent assortment? Alleles for each locus are segregated independently because chromosomes segregate independently during meiosis
How do you predict the offspring of independently assorted crosses? Product Rule: product of all of the individual probabilities
What's the F2 offspring genotypic ratio in a dihybrid cross 9:3:3:1
n loci --> ___ genotypes; ____ phenotypes; ___ gamtetes 2^n; 3^n; 2^n
How do you determine whether an organism is Rr or RR? Test cross: R___ x rr
What is incomplete dominance? Gene expression depends on enzyme activity (i.e. red + white flowers)
What is codominance? Heterozygote shows both phenotypes (i.e. blood type.. AB)
In labrador's what do the B and E alleles do? B affects color ( B=black, b=brown); E affects expression of color (regulatory; E=expressed, e=not expressed: yellow)
Define epistasis One gene regulating the expression of another (i.e. labrador's)
In Morgan/Fly genetics, how are dominant, recessive, and wild type alleles represented Dominant have upper case; recessive have upper case; wile type have +; alleles separate by a /
What is sex linkage Genes for a given trait are located on a sex chromosome
Differentiate between hetero- and homogametic sex chromosomes Hetero-2 kinds of sex chromosomes & will be hemizygous (human males) Homo- 2 copies of one kind of sex chromosome
Define hemizygous Only one copy of an allele in a diploid organism
2 % of the human genome is ________; the remaining 98 % is used for _________. Coding; regulatory functions
What's the difference between complete and incomplete sex linkage Incomplete: equal number of parental and recombinant offspring Complete: Only parental offspring
Fl (a+b/ab+) if two alleles are _____. F1 (a+/a b/b+) if two alleles are ____. linked/ on same chromosome unlinked/ on separate chromosome
In ___________ you will see more parental genotypes than recombinant in the F1 generation Linkage
What allows us to map genes? Recombination
Relationship between genetic mapping and recompination 1 map unit = 1% recombination = 1cM
How to calculate map distances 1. Are genes linked(excess parental)? 2. Calculate recombination frequency(recombinated/total). 3. Convert to % for map distance
As distance on chromosomes increases, recombination frequency does what? increases
An odd number of cross-overs shows ________ offspring; An even number of cross-overs shows __________ offspring. Recombinant; parental(can't tell)
What's the maximum recombination frequency? 0.5/50%
__________________ can be used to put genes in order because the gene in the middle allows us to see recombination events on the other side 3-point crosses
Define nondisjunction The failure of sister chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis
What does it mean for an allele to not independently assort? The alleles can't separate and there is no diversity in combinations
The fact that 'R' separates from 'r' in gamete formation is an example of what? The law of segregation
Does independent assortment occur in epistasis? Yes; but the genes do not behave independently/ traits are not independently expressed
A human sperm cell would be described as (a)haploid (b)2n=46 (c)1n=23 A/C
Do cyclins add phosphate groups to other molecules? No! They regulate
In incomplete dominance what are the F1 genotypic and phenotypic ratios 1:2:1
If codominance were a factor, what would the offspring of a blue crossed with a red flower look like? Blue and red spotted
What are the symbols in a pedigree chart for male, female, cross, affected, unaffected Male = square; female= circle; cross=line between male and female; affected=colored; unaffected=empty
What are the four hypothesis a pedigree analysis tests? Autosomal recessive; autosomal dominant; sex-linked recessive; sex-linked dominant
Created by: jkmccord11



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