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VNSG 1231 Exam 1

Pharmacology Ch 1

movement of the a drug from the outside of the body into the blood stream Absorption
same as adverse effect ADR-Adverse drug reaction
a drug effect that is more severe than expected and has the potential to damage tissue or cause serious health problems Adverse Effect
an extrinsic drug that activates the receptor site of the cell and mimics the actions of naturally occurring drugs Agonist
type of adverse effect in which the presence of the drug stimulates the release of histamine Allergic response
an extrinsic drug that blocks the receptor site of a cell, preventing the naturally occurring substance from binding to the receptor Antagonist
the percentage of a dose that actually reaches the blood bioavailability
a notice that a drug may produce a serious or even life threatening effects in some people in addition to its beneficial effects Black box warning
A manufacturer-owned name of a generic drug; also called "trade name" Brand Name
drug action that is intended to kill a cell or an organism cytotoxic
extent that a drug spreads into specific compartments Distribution
any small molecule that changes an body function by working at the chemical and cell levels Drug
the planned use of a drug to prevent or improve a health problem Drug therapy
the length of time a drug is present in the blood duration of action
the removal of drugs from the body accomplished by certain body systems Elimination
movement of drugs from the outside of the body to the inside using the gastrointestinal tract Enteral Route
drugs that are man-made or derived from other species; not made by the human body Extrinsic Drugs
rapid inactivation or elimination of oral drugs as a result of liver metabolism First-pass loss
national and international public drug name created by USAN Generic Name
time span needed for one half of a drug dose to be eliminated Half-life
natural products made from plants that cause a response in the body similar to that of a drug; also called botanicals Herbals
a drug that has an increased risk of causing patient harm if it is used in error High-alert drug
desired effect of a main drug on specific body cells or tissue intended action
hormones, enzymes, growth factors, and other chemicals made by the body that change the activity of cells Intrinsic drugs
the first dose of a drug that is larger than all subsequent doses of the same drug Loading dose
exactly how a drug works to change a body function Mechanism of action
any small molecule that changes any body function by working at the chemical and cell levels Medication
chemical reaction in the body that changes the chemical shape and content of a drug Metabolism
the smallest amount of a drug necessary in the blood or target tissue to result in a measurable intended action Minimum effective concentration (MEC)
drugs that are approved for purchase without a prescription over the counter (OTC)
movement of a drug from the outside of the body to the inside of the body by injection Parenteral route
Maximum blood level Peak
movement of a drug from the outside of the body to the inside through the skin or mucous membranes percutaneous route
unexpected adverse effects that are unique to the patient and not related to the mechanism of action of the drug idiosyncratic (personal) responses
study of ways in which drugs affect the body Pharmacodynamics
how the body changes drugs; drug metabolism Pharmacokinetics
the science and study of drugs and their actions on living animals Pharmacology
the change in body function as an outcome or the mechanism of action of a drug Physiologic effect
the strength of the intended action produced at a given drug dose Potency
an order written or dictated by a state-approved prescriber for a specific drug therapy for a specific patient Prescription
the legal status of any drug that is considered unsafe for self medication or has a potential for addiction Prescription Drugs
Physical place on or in a cell where a drug can bind and interact Receptors
the "trapping" of drugs within certain body tissues, delaying their elimination, and extending their duration of action Sequestration
any minor effect of a drug on body cells or tissues that is not the intended action of a drug Side Effects
point at which drug elimination is balanced with drug entry, resulting in a constant effective blood level of the drug Steady State
the actual cells or tissues affected by the mechanism of action or intended actions of a specific drug Target tissue
type of percutaneous drug delivery in which the drug is applied to the skin, passes through the skin, and enters into the bloodstream Transdermal
the lowest minimal blood level Trough
changing of a drug from a liquid form to a gas that can be absorbed into the body by inhalation Vaporized
role is to mix and dispense prescribed drugs Pharmacist
role is to administer prescribed drugs directly to the patient Nurse
a special council creates the generic names used for all drugs made in the US United States Adopted Names (USAN)
one way to remember the more commonly prescribed high-alert drugs is with the term PINCH Potassium, Insulin, Narcotics, Cancer chemotherapy agents, and Heparin
develops manufacturing standards-purity, strength, packaging, and labeling United States Pharmacopeia (USP)
enforces standards set by USP Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
work together with US congress and US supreme court to protect the public USP and FDA
A target for a drug Receptors
Nonreceptor responses inhibits or kills bacteria
skin or mucous membrane Percutaneous Route
GI tract (by mouth) Enteral Route
injected into the body Parenteral Route
occurs in the liver and kidneys Metabolism
liver toxic hepatotoxicity
kidney toxic nephrotoxicity
Life span considerations in children body size- drugs prescribed in mg/kg (weight) or BSA
drugs that have a specific type of response in adult may have the opposite response in a child paradoxical effect
life span consideration in the liver metabolism maybe slower or faster in children, older adults may have liver damage
life span consideration in cardiopulmonary effective heart, adequate blood pressure, and good oxygenation for optimum drug therapy
some drugs cross into breast milk breast feeding
life span considerations in mothers some drugs cross placenta, teratogens
drugs that can cause a birth defect teratogens
Pregnancy category A adequate well-controlled research studies that have included pregnant women have not shown the drug to have an increased risk for birth defect or problems in the fetus
animal studies have been done and do not shoe the drug to have an increased risk for birth defects Pregnancy category B
animal studies have been done and show the drug to have an increased risk for birth defects Pregnancy category C
adequate studies of the drug have been done in pregnant women and show to have an increased risk for birth defects Pregnancy category D
adequate studies of the drug have been done in pregnant women and show to have a greatly increased risk for fetal abnormalities Pregnanct category X
3.5/5.0 g/dL Albumin
3-35 international units/L or 8-20 units/L Alanine aminotransferase
5-40 units/L Aspartate aminotransferase
115-225 international units/L Lactate dehydrogenase
30-85 international units/L or 42-128 units/L alkaline phosphate
0.1-1.0 mg/dL bilirubin total serum
15-110 mg/dL ammonia
10-20 mg/dL Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
Males: 0.6-1.3 mg/dL and Females 0.5-1 mg/dL Creatinine
135-145 mEq/L Sodium
3.5-5 mEq/L Potassium
Created by: nursekk