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Dosage calc ch 1

Ms. Hill's dosage calc ch 1

Absorption movement of a drug from the outside of the body into the bloodstream
Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR)- Same as adverse effect
Adverse Effect a drug effect that is more severe than expected and has the potential to damage tissue or cause serious health problems. It may also be called a toxic effect or toxicity and usually requires intervention by the prescriber
Agonist An extrinsic drug that activates the receptor site of a cell and mimics the actions of naturally occuring drugs (intrinsic)
Allergic response- Type of adverse effect in which the presence of the drug stimulates the release of histamine and other body cheimcals that cause inflammatory reactions. The response may be as mild as a reash or as severe and life threatening as anaphylaxis
Antagonist An extrinsic drug that blocks the receptor site of a cell, preventing the naturally occuring substance from binding to the receptor
bioavailability the percentage of a drug dose that actually reaches the blood
black box warning- A notice that a drug may produce serious or even life-threatening effects in some people in addition to its beneficial effects
brand name A manugacturer-owned name of a generic drug; also called "trade name" or "proprietary name" First letter capitalized and followed by ® or TM, Assigned by drug manufacturer
cytotoxic drug action that is intended to kill a cell or organism
distribution The extent that a drug absorbed into the bloodstream spreds into the three body water compartments
Drug any small molecule that changes any body function by working at the chemical and cell levels.
drug therapy the planned use of a drug to prevent or improve a health promotion
duration of action the length of time a drug is present in the blood at or above the level needed to produce an effect or response.
elimination the inactivation or removal of drugs from the body accomplished by certain body systems
enteral route movement of drugs from the outside of the body to the inside using the gastrointestinal tract
extrinsic drugs drugs that are man-made (synthetic) or derived from another species; not made by the human body
first-pass loss rapid inactivation or elimination of oral drugs as a result of liver metabolism
generic name national and international public drug name created by the United States Adopted Names (USAN) Council to indicate the usual use or chemical composition of a drug
half-life time span needed for one half of a drug dose to be eliminated
herbals natural products made from plants that cause a response in the body similar to that of a drug; also called botanicals
high-alert drug a drug that has an increased risk of causing patient harm if it is used in error
intended action desired effect (main effect) of a drug on specific body cells or tissues same as therapeutic response
intrinsic drugs hormones, enzymes, growth factors, and other chemicals made by the body that change the activity of cells.
loading dose the first dose of a drug that is larger than all subsequent doses of the same drug; used when it takes more drug to reach steady state than it does to maintain it
Mechanism of action Exactly how, at the cellular level, a drug changes the activity of a cell
Medication any small molecule that changes any body function by working at the chemical and cell levels
metabolism Chemical reaction in the body that changes the chemical shape and content of a drug, preparing the drug for inactivation and elimination.
minimum effective concentration (MEC) the smallest amount of drug necessary in the blood or target tissue to result in a measurable intended action
over-the-counter drugs that are approved for purchase without a prescription
parenteral route movement of a drug from the outside of the body to the inside of the body by injection (intra-aterial, intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous, intracavity intraosseous, intrathecal.)
peak maximum blood drug level
percutaneous route movement of a drug from the outside of the body to the inside through the skin or mucous membrane
personal responses unexpected adverse effects that are unique to the patient and not related to the mechanism of action of the drug They are also called idiosyncratic responses
pharmacodynamics ways in which drugs work to change body function
pharmacokinetics how the body changes the drugs; drug metabolism
pharmacology the science and study of drugs and their actions on living animals
physiologic effect the change in body function as an outcome of the mechanism of action of a drug
potency the strength of the intended action produced at a given drug dose
prescription an order written or dictated by a state-approved prescriber for a specific drug therapy for a specific patient
prescription drugs the legal status of any drug that is considered unsage for self-medicated or has a potential for addiction and is only available by prescription written by a state-approved health care professional
receptors physical place on or in a cell where a drug can bind and interact
sequestration the "trapping" of drugs within certain body tissues, delaying their elimination and extending their duration of action
side effects Any minor effect of a drug on body cells or tissues that is not the intended action of a drug
steady state Point at which drug elimination is balanced with drug entry, resulting in a constant effective blood level of the drug
target tissue The actual cells or tissues affected by the mechanism of action or intended actions of a specific drug
transdermal type of percutaneous drug delivery in which the drug is applied to the skin, passes through the skin, and enters the bloodstream
trough the lowest or minimal blood drug level
vaporized changing of a drug from a liquid to a gas that can be absorbed into the body by inhalation
Drugs can interact with: Other extrinsic drugs, Other intrinsic drugs, Food, Vitamins, Herbal compounds, Lots of possible interactions
Can drug and medication mean the same thing? Drug and medication can mean the same thing and can be misused or abused
What do all drugs do? All drugs affect some tissue or organ
Drug Categories Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, Prescription drugs, Herbals (also called botanicals)
Herbals (also called botanicals) are also known as? Also known as herbal therapy, homeopathic therapy, natural therapy, or alternative therapy
United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Develops manufacturing standards; Purity, strength, packaging, and labeling
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Enforces standards set by USP
Pharmacokinetics (routes) Percutaneous route – skin or mucous membranes, Enteral route – GI tract,Parenteral route – injected into the body, Absorption – movement of drug from outside of the body to the bloodstream
Distribution (compartments) Blood, Interstitial space,Intracellular space
Metabolism occurs in..... liver and kidneys
Elimination occurs in...... GI tract, kidneys, lungs
Hepatotoxicity liver toxic
Nephrotoxicity kidney toxic
Life Span Considerations: Children Body size(Children are smaller than adults), Prescribed in mg/kg, Or body surface area (BSA), Paradoxical effect, Drugs can impact development
Created by: 1014012312