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Medical Terminology


Interictal The period between seizures or convulsions that are characteristic of epilepsy. This state corresponds to more than 99% of their life. EEG discharges during this state are those abnormal waveforms not associated with seizure symptoms.
Ictal A physiologic state or event such as a seizure, stroke or headache. In EEG, the recording during an actual seizure is said to be this.
Post-Ictal The state shortly after the event.
Aura A telltale perceptual disturbance experienced before a headache or seizure, often manifests as the perception of a strange light, an unpleasant smell or confusing thoughts or experiences.
Somatosensory Pertaining to sensations that involve parts of the body not associated with the primary sense organs. Usually takes place in the form of numbness and tingling (like 'pins and needles').
Automatisms Brief unconscious behaviors. These typically last for several seconds to minutes or sometimes longer, a time during which the subject is unaware of his/her actions. These often occur in CP seizures or temporal lobe epilepsy. Could also be med side effect.
Aphasia The inability to understand or express language. It ranges from having difficulty remembering words to being completely unable to speak, read, or write.
Per OS By or through the mouth, denoting a method of delivering medication.
Titration Incremental increase in drug dosage to a level that provides the optimal therapeutic effect.
DOC Drug of Choice
Adjunctive Therapy Not DOC. Used in addition to DOC to assist tx.
Cryptogenic Refers to something of obscure or unknown origin.
Glial Cells (Neuroglia or Glia) Greek for "glue." Non-neuronal cells that maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and provide support and protection for neurons in the brain and for neurons in other parts of the nervous system, such as in the autonomic nervous system.
Superior Above
Inferior Below
Anterior / Ventral Front
Posterior / Dorsal Back
Cranial Toward Head
Caudial Toward Tailbone
Central Toward Trunk
Peripheral Toward Extremities
Medial Toward Midline
Lateral Toward Sides
Inner Aspect Inside
Supine Lying on Back, Face Up
Prone Lying on Abdomen
Deep Away from Surface
Superficial Toward Surface
Proximal Toward Structure Orgin
Distal Away from Structure Orgin
Efferent Conducting away from Structure
Afferent Conducting Toward Structure
1st Set of Spinal Region Cervical - 7
2nd Set of Spinal Region Thoracic - 12
3rd Set of Spinal Region Lumbar - 5
4th Set of Spinal Region Sacral - 5
5th Set of Spinal Region Coccygeal - 1
Athro Fatty Plaque
Auro / Oto Ear
Chiro Hand
Chioro Green
Cholecysto Gallbladder
Chole Bile / Gall
Chondro Cartilage
Chromo Color
Corono Heart
Costo Rib
Cyano Blue
Dactylo Fingers / Toes
Dipso Thirst
Diplo Double
Entero Small Intestine
Eosino Red / Rosey
Erythro Red
Pyo Puss
Glauco Grey
Reno Kidney
Hepato Liver
Septo Wall
Spondylo Vertebrae
Histo Tissue
Iso Equal
Karyo Nucleus
Leuko White
Litho Stone / Mineral Concretion (Calculus)
Melano Black
Meningo Membrane
Myelo Bone Marrow
Myo Muscle
Mephro Kidney
Oligo Scanty (Small or insufficient in quantity or amount.)
Protal Liver
Angina Chest Pain
Atrophy Without Development
Agenesis Without Formation
Anencephalia Without a Brain
Epigastric Upon Stomach
Epicardium Upon Heart
Epineural Upon Nerve
Epicranium Upon Scull
Dyspnea / Dyspned Difficult Breathing
Dysphagia Difficult Eating
Dyspepsia Difficult Digesting
Dysmenorrhea Difficult / Painful Period
Pnea To Breathe
Tachypnea Fast Breathing
Apnea Lack of Breathing
Bradypnea Slow Breathing
Carditis Inflammation of Heart
Cardialgia Pain in Heart
Dermatitis Inflammation of Skin
Dermatome Instrument used in Cutting Skin.
Dermatosis Abnormality of the Skin.
Dermatopathy Disease of Skin.
Adenectomy Removal
Arthromalacia Softening of Joint
ASA Aspirin (Acetylsalicylic Acid)
Bx Biopsy
Cap Capsule
C/O Complaining Of
D/C Discontinue
Dx Diagnosis
HA Headache
hr Hour
Hx History
NPO Nothing by Mouth
N&V Nausea and Vomiting
od Right Eye
os Left Eye
ou Both Eyes
Ped Pediatrics
PI Present Illness
po By Mouth / Orally
Prog Prognosis
Pt Patient
R/O Rule Out
Rx Prescription
stat Immediately
Sx Symptoms
tab Tablet
temp Temperature
Tx Treatment
URI Upper Respritory Infection
UTI Urinary Tract Infection
am Before Noon
pm After Noon
āc Before Meals
bid Twice Daily
hs At Bedtime
p.c. After Meals
qd Every Day
qhs Every Night
QNS Quantity Not Sufficient
qid Four Times a Day
tid Three Times a Day
ad lib As Desired
ā Before
B/O Because Of
CSF Cerebrospinal Fluid 
ŝ Without
q Every
ss One Half
ĉ With
q2h Every 2 Hours
AMA Against Medical Advice
A&W  Alive and Well
AD    Admitting Diagnosis
ADL  Activities of Daily Living
AKA Above the Knee Amputation
Bil(at) Bilateral
CA Cancer, Carcinoma
CC  Chief Complaint; Complications and Co­Morbidities
CP Chest Pain
CPAP Continuous (Constant) Positive Airway Pressure
CVD  Cardiovascular Disease  
DD  Differential Diagnosis
EGA  Estimated Gestational Age
FTT Failure to Thrive 
F/O  Follow­up
HEENT Head, Eyes, Ears, Nose, Throat 
H&N  Head and Neck
H&P History and Physical
h/o History Of
K Potassium
MAOI  Monamine Oxidase Inhibitor
MR  Magnetic Resonance; Medical Records; Mental Retardation
MSW  Master of Social Work 
NOS Not Otherwise Specified; No Organisms Seen
NVD Nausea, Vomiting, Diarrhea
OC Oral Contraceptive
pr Per Rectum
PRN  Pro Re Nata (As Needed / Necessary)
qod Every Other Day
SOB  Shortness of Breath
VS Vital Signs
w/c  Wheelchair
w/u Work­up
1°  Primary 
2°  Secondary
Hypertension Elevated bp
Hypotension Low bp
Occlusion Closure or a blockage. Blockage or obstruction of a blood vessel.
Thrombus Stationary blood clot.
Embolus Moving blood clot.
Ischemia Local and temporary deficiency of blood supply usually do to obstruction or spasm in vessel.
Infraction (Infarct) Area of necrotic (dead) tissue due to deficit of blood supply to the area.
Aneurysm Local widening of an artery.
Anastomosis (Collateral Circulation) A connection between blood vessels that is not usually there.
Atherosclerosis An accumulation of lipid/plaque deposits on a vessel wall.
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) Blockage of this artery usually leads to atherosclerosis.
Angina Pectoris Episodic chest pain due to temporary differences between supply and demand of 02 to heart muscle.
Congestive Heart Failure Inability of the heart to pump required amount of blood.
Cardiovascular Accident (CVA) Damage to brain secondary to blood vessel occlusion.
Subaracnoid Hemorrhage (SAH) Bleeding into the subarachnoid space—the area between the Arachnoid membrane and the Pia mater surrounding the brain. This may occur spontaneously, usually from a ruptured cerebral aneurysm, or may result from head injury.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Occurrence of chronic bronchitis or emphysema, a pair of commonly co-existing diseases of the lungs in which the airways become narrowed.
Myocardial Infarction (MI) Commonly known as a heart attack. Results from the interruption of blood supply to a part of the heart, causing heart cells to die. This is most commonly due to occlusion of a coronary artery following the rupture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque.
PCO2 Pressure of Carbon Dioxide.
CNIM Clinical Neuro Interoperative Monitoring.
Convulsion Alteration of body posture.
Epilepsy Reoccurant szs.
Seizures A treatable cause that produces neurons to misfire on 1 or more occasions.
Isoelectric A flat EEG record.
Ancillary Providing necessary support to the primary activities or operation of an organization, institution, industry, or system.
Hypoxia A pathological condition in which the body as a whole or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply.
± "Plus or Minus" or "Positive or Negative."
HIE Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy.
Dysmaturity The gap between the actual postmenstrual age and the patient’s age suggested by their EEG characteristics is physiologic evidence.
Hematoma A localized collection of blood outside the blood vessels, usually in liquid form within the tissue.
Ecchymosis The spread of blood under the skin in a thin layer, commonly called a bruise.
Hemangioma An abnormal build up of blood vessels in the skin or internal organs.
Abscess A collection of pus (neutrophils) accumulated in a cavity in response to either an infectious process (usually caused by bacteria or parasites) or other foreign materials (splinters, etc) to prevent the spread of infectious materials.
Infarction Refers to tissue death (necrosis) caused by an obstruction of the tissue's blood supply, which leads to a local lack of oxygen.
Infarct The resulting lesion from tissue death (necrosis) caused by an obstruction of the tissue's blood supply.
Intractable Difficult - Describing high complexity, which makes it difficult to change, manipulate, or resolve an issue.
Prototype An early sample or model built to test a concept or process or to act as a thing to be replicated or learned from.
Adjacent Being in close proximity. Having a common endpoint or border. May or may not imply contact but always implies absence of anything of the same kind in between.
qv As much as you will — used in writing prescriptions.
Refractory To be resistant to treatment or cure.
rxn Reaction
Overt Done or shown openly; plainly or readily apparent, not secret or hidden.
Intubation (Entubation) Insertion of a tube into an external or internal orifice of the body for the purpose of adding or removing fluids. This term is often considered synonymous with tracheal, but may reference inserting a tube into the gastrointestinal tract, etc.
р After
Flaccid Soft and hanging loosely or limply.
Decerebrate Posture An abnormal body posture involving arms and legs held straight out, toes pointed downward, and the head and neck arched backwards. The muscles are tightened and held rigidly. This usually means there has been severe damage to the brain.
Decortication Relating to an animal that has had the cortex of the brain removed or separated.
Asphyxiated Death by air deprivation.
Hypoxic Oxygen deficiency causing a very strong drive to correct the deficiency.
Necrosis The death of a cell or group of cells in contact with living tissue.
Kernicterus An abnormal accumulation of bile pigment in the brain and other nerve tissue; causes yellow staining and tissue damage.
Opisthotonos A condition in which the body is held in an abnormal position. The person is usually rigid and arches the back, with the head thrown backward.
Pallor Reduced amount of oxyhaemoglobin in skin or mucous membrane, a pale color which can be caused by illness, emotional shock or stress, stimulant use, or anemia. More evident on the face and palms. An unhealthy pale appearance.
Dysplasia An abnormality of development.
Edema (Dropsy or Hydropsy) An abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, which are locations beneath the skin or in one or more cavities of the body. It is clinically shown as swelling.
Peri- “About” or “around” (perimeter, periscope), “enclosing” or “surrounding” (pericardium), and “near” (perigee, perihelion).
Paraplegia Paralysis of the lower limbs and may include trunk.
Ballism Violent, flinging, shaking or jerking movements of the extremities.
Athetosis Slow, worm-like writhing movement, especially in hands and fingers.
Chorea Quick explosive purposeless movements.
Choreoathetosis Both Chorea and athetosis.
Dystonia Abnormal posture from twisting movements, usually limbs and trunk.
Paresis Partial paralysis.
Torpor No response to normal stimuli; numbness.
Dysrhythmia Difficult rhythm.
Eupnea Normal breathing.
Astatic Unstable.
Pyknos Crowding (many per hour in sz condition).
Parenterally Introduction of nutrition, a medication, or other substance into the body via a route other than the mouth, especially via infusion, injection or implantation.
Sanatize Reducing the number of microorganisms that are on a properly cleaned surface to a safe level. It is accomplished by using either heat, radiation, or chemicals.
Congenital Present from birth.
Micturition Urination
Fossa A small longitudinal cavity or depression, as in a bone.
Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) Aims to offer insights into how a given person, in a given context, makes sense of a given phenomenon.
Brain Attack Stroke, TIA
Toxic Poisonous - pertaining to something introduced into the body or developed within the body as part of a disease process.
Diplopia Double Vision
Eosinophil White blood cell count (determines infection, allergic diseases, and other medical conditions).
Dysuria Painful urination.
Prophylaxis Action taken to prevent disease, esp. by specified means or against a specified disease.
۸ Approximately
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Created by: kmburg5840
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