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Step 1 9.7.12

Biochem Enzymes and carriers

QuestionAnswer
What is the process of ethhanol metabolism and what catalyzes each step? EtOH--->acetylaldehyde (in cytosol by EtOH DH req NAD+)---->acetate (in mito by acetylaldehyde dehydrogenase req NAD+)
What is the limiting reagent in EtOH metabolism? NAD+
What is the kinetics of EtOH DH? 1st order
What is fomeprizole and what does it treat? inhibits EtOH dehydrogenase, treats methanol or etgly poisoning
What is disulfram? inhbits acetaldydyde DH, more hangover sx (used in alcoholics)
What is the mechanism of ethanol hypoglycemia? increases NAD/NADH ratio in liver inhbits gluconeogenesis and stimulates FA synth
How does alcoholism lead to acidosis and FA synth? overproduce lactate---> acidosis. deplete oxaloacetate shuts down TCA, get over production of malate and incr NADPH and thus FA synth
What is kwashiorkor and SX? protein malnutrition resulting in lesions, edema, liver malfunction. Small child with swollen belly. MEAL= malnutrition, edema, anemia, liver(fatty)
What is marasmus and SX? energy malnutrition resulting in tissue and muscle wasting
What 4 metabolic processes occur in mitochondria? 1. fatty acid oxidation (beta) 2. acetyl coA production 3.TCA cycle 4.oxidative phosphorylation
What 5 metabolic processes occur in the cytoplasm? 1.glycolysis 2. FA synth 3. HMP shunt 4. protein synth (RER) 5. steroid synth (SER)
What are 3 metabolic processes that involve both the mitochondria and cytoplasm? heme synthesis, urea cycle, gluconeogenesis (HUGS TAKE TWO)
What does a kinase do? uses ATP to add phosphate onto substrate
What does a phosphorylase do? adds inorganic phosphate without using ATP
What does a phosphatase do? removes phosphate from substrate
What does a dehydrogenase do? oxidizes substrate
What does a carboxylase do? transfers CO2 with help of biotin
What is the rate determing enzyme of glycolyis and what is the reaction? phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1). F6p---->F16BP
What is the rate determing enzyme of gluconeogenesisand what is the reaction? fructose 1,6 bisphosphate F16BP---->F6P
What is the rate determining enzyme of TCA cycle and what is the reaction? isocitrate dehydrogenase isocitrate--->alpha ketoglutarate
What is the rate determining enzyme of glycogen synthesis and what is the reaction? glycogen synthase G1P--->glycogen
What is the rate determining enzyme of glycogenolyisis and what is the reaction? glycogen phosphorylase glycogen--->g-1P
What is the rate determining enzyme of HMP shunt and what is the reaction? glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) G6P--->6 phosphogluconolactone
What is the rate determining enzyme of de novo pyrimidine synthesis? carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II
What is the rate determining enzyme of de novo purine synthesis? glutamine PRPP amidotransferase
What is the rate determining enzyme of urea cycle and what is the reaction? carbomoyl phosphate synthetase I. Co2+NH4+---->carbomoyl phosphate
What is the rate determining enzyme of fatty acid synthesis and what is the reaction? acetyl coA carboxylase (ACC) acetyl coA--->malonyl CoA
What is the rate determining enzyme of fatty acid oxidation? carnitine acyltransferase I
What is the rate determining enzyme of ketogenesis? HMG-CoA synthase
What is the rate determining enzyme of cholesterol synthesis? HMG-CoA reductase
What is the output of aerobic metabolism in the heart and liver via what mech? 32 ATP via malate aspartate shuttle
What is the output of aerobic metabolism in the muscle via what mech? 30 ATP via glycerol 3 phosphate shuttle
What is the output of anaerobic glycolysis? 2 net ATP/glucose
What is the activated carrier of phosphoryl groups? ATP
What is the activated carriers of electrons? NADH, NADPH, FADH2
What are the activated carriers of acyl groups? coenzyme A, lipoamide
What is the activated carrier of CO2? biotin
What is the activated carrier of 1 carbon units? tetrahydrofolate
What is the activated carrier of CH3 group? SAM
What is the activated carrier of aldehydes? TPP
What vitamin is needed for the production of the nicotinamides (NAD, NADP)? B3
What vitamin is needed for the production of FAD? B2
What is the end product of the HMP shunt? NADPH
Which nicotinamide is used in catbolic vas anabolic processes NAD for catabolic, NADPH in anabolic
What 4 reactions require NADPH? 1.anabolic processes 2 respiratory burst 3 P-450 4. glutathione reductase
what is the role of hexokinase, where is it used and what inhibits it? phosphorylzes glucose to G-6-P anywhere by liver and pancreas. high affinity (low Km), low capacity (low Vmax). not induced by insulin. inhibited by G6P
What is the role of glucokinase where is it found and what induces it? phosphorylates glucose to G6P in liver and Beta cells of pancreas. low affinity (high Km), high capacity (high Vmax) induced by insulin. GLUTTON because it cant be satified. Allows liver to serve as blood glucose buffer.
Created by: tjs2123
 

 



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