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A&P II

Lecture 1--Bone biology & the skeletal System

QuestionAnswer
Slide 1--Introduction to the Skeleton (PT 1) The human skeleton consists of two main division 1) Axial (74 bones) 2) Appendicular (126 bones)
Slide 1--Introduction to the Skeleton (PT2) There is a total of 206 bones in the adult body. There are 6 tiny bones in the inner ear
Slide 1--Introduction to the Skeleton (PT3) Human infants are born with about 350 bones
What does the human skeleton consists of two main divisions? What are the two main divisions? The human skeleton consists of two main division 1) Axial (74 bones) 2) Appendicular (126 bones)
How many total bones are in the adult human body? There is a total of 206 bones in the adult body. There are 6 tiny bones in the inner ear
About how many are infants born with? infants are born with 350 at birth.
Slide 2--Functions (pt 1) *Provide shape and support *Muscle: 1) muscle and tendons attach to the bone's surface 2) ligaments connect bones together across a joint
Slide 2--Functions (pt 2) *Protection of vital organs *site of red blood cells synthesis (hematopoiesis) *Serves as a store site for minerals, expecially calicum and phosphorus
Slide 3--Skull *Protects the brain *Contains air-filled spaces or sinuses that is lined with mucosa *Comprised of eight bones fused together by sutures
The skull protects the? The skull protects the brain
The skull contains what? The skull contains air-filled spaces or sinuses that is lined with mucosa
What is Comprised of eight bones fused together by sutures? The skull
What contains air-filled spaces or sinuses that is lined with mucosa The skull
Slide 4--Types of bones *Long bones: femur, thigh *Short bones: cube or box-shaped;carpal and ankle bones are examples *flat bones:generally broad & thin; ribs scapulae,sternum *irregular bones: uniquely shaped bones; one of a kind. Some examples include vertebral & facial bo
A femur and a thigh is an example of what kind of bone? Long bone
cube or box-shaped;carpal and ankle bones are examples of?
What type of bone is generally broad & thin; ribs scapulae,sternum Flat bones
What kind of bone is uniquely shaped bones; one of a kind. Some examples include vertebral & facial bones irregular bone
Slide 6--Infant skull *Infant brain is rich in activity and consumes about 60% of the energy used by the body *the infant skull is born with fontanels or "soft spots" that have not fused *Fusion occurs when brain development is completed
An infant skull is born with fontanels what is another word for fontanels? the infant skull is born with fontanels or "soft spots" that have not fused
When does fusion occurs in an infant brain? Fusion occurs when brain development is completed
Slide 8--Anatomy7 of long bones (Pt 1) *Long bones include the humorus, femur,uina,tibias,etc *site of red cell synthesis *Diaphysis: shaft-like portion *Epiphysis: Both ends of a long bone; provides attachment for muscle and joints
Slide 8--Anatomy7 of long bones (Pt 2) *Articular Cartilage:Covers the articular & joint surface of the epiphysis *Periosteum: a dense membrane that covers the bone, containingosteogenic cells *Each longe bone contain a growth plate (epiphyseal plate) on each end
What does the long bone include? Long bones include the humorus, femur,uina,tibias,etc
True or False--Are long bones a site of red cell synthesis? True long bones a site of red cell synthesis
Define Diaphysis Diaphysis: shaft-like portion
Define Epiphysis Epiphysis: Both ends of a long bone; provides attachment for muscle and joints
Define Articular Cartilage Covers the articular & joint surface of the epiphysis
Define Periosteum a dense membrane that covers the bone, containingosteogenic cells
Each long bone contains what on each end? *Each longe bone contain a growth plate (epiphyseal plate) on each end
Slide 10--Compact Bone (Pt 1) * Constitutes 80% total bone mass *Comprised of cylinder-shaped osteons that are cemented together *Four types of structures make up an osteon 1)lamellae-islands of calcified matrix between osteons
Slide 10--Compact Bone (Pt 2) 2)Lacunae-- "little lakes" small spances containing osteocytes imprisioned between lamelies 3)Canaicull: Tiny tunnels that radiate from lucunee-to-lucanae and into the heaversian
Slide 10--Compact Bone (Pt 3) 4)Haversian Canal: Contains blood vessels and nerves supplies nurtients and oxygen *Volkmanns Cannal:Runs transverse, connecting haversian canals together
What type of bone constitutes of 80% bone mass? Compact bone- constitutes 80% of total bone mass.
What is Comprised of cylinder-shaped osteons that are cemented together The compact bone is-- Comprised of cylinder-shaped osteons that are cemented together
What are the Four types of structures make up an osteon? 1)lamellae- 2)Lacunae 3)Canaicull 4)Haversian Canal
Define lamellae lamellae-islands of calcified matrix between osteons
Define Lacunae Lacunae-- "little lakes" small spances containing osteocytes imprisioned between lamelies
Define Canaicull 3)Canaicull: Tiny tunnels that radiate from lucunee-to-lucanae and into the heaversian
Define Haversian Canal Haversian Canal: Contains blood vessels and nerves supplies nurtients and oxygen
Define Volkmanns Cannal Volkmanns Cannal:Runs transverse, connecting haversian canals together
Slide 12--Bone Marrow-Red Marrow *Site of red blood cell synthesis *Found in medullary cavities and spongy (cancellous) Bones *Found in mostly long bones but also found in the ribs and pelvis
What bone marrow is the Site of red blood cell synthesis Red Bone Marrow
Where is red bone marrow found? Found in medullary cavities and spongy (cancellous) Bones *Found in mostly long bones but also found in the ribs and pelvis
What bone marrow is mostly found in long bones but also found in the ribs and pelvis? Red Bone Marrow
Slide 14--Yellow Bone Marrow *Yellow Marrow is filled with fat cells *As an individual ages, red marrow is replaced with yellow marrow *During Times of anemia, the body can convert yellow marrow back to red marrow
Which bone marrow is filled with fat cells? Yellow Marrow is filled with fat cells
As an individual ages, red marrow is replaced with? As an individual ages, red marrow is replaced with yellow marrow
During Times of anemia, the body can convert yellow marrow back to What? During Times of anemia, the body can convert yellow marrow back to red marrow
Slide 15--Bone Remodeling *At any given time, 20% of the adult skeleton is undergoing remodeling *Remodeling: Process of bone resorption followed by replacement of bone with little change or shape *Osteoblasts: Build Bones *Osteoclasts: Removes bones Osteocytes: Mature osteobl
Define bone Remodeling Remodeling: Process of bone resorption followed by replacement of bone with little change or shape
Define Osteoblasts Osteoblasts: Build Bones
Define Osteoclasts *Osteoclasts: Removes bones
Define Osteocytes Osteocytes: Mature osteoblast
Slide 16--Osteoblasts (Pt 1) *Most abundant cell in bone; star shaped *Osteoblast secrete a collagenous matrix called an osteoid *Activated by and has intracellular receptors for vitamin D
Slide 16--Osteoblasts (pt 2) *once the matrix hardens, the osteoblast becomes an osteocyte *osteocytes occypy a site called the lacuna *Osteocytes are networked to eachother via long processess that occypy tiny canals called cananilci which are used for exhance of nutrients and was
What is the Most abundant cell in bone; star shaped called? Osteoblasts
Osteoblast secrete a collagenous matrix called? Osteoblast secrete a collagenous matrix called an osteoid
What is Activated by and has intracellular receptors for vitamin D Osteoblasts
Once the matrix hardens, the osteoblast becomes? once the matrix hardens, the osteoblast becomes an osteocyte
Osteocytes occypy a site called the? osteocytes occypy a site called the lacuna
Osteocytes are networked to eachother via long processess that occypy tiny canals called? Osteocytes are networked to eachother via long processess that occypy tiny canals called cananilci which are used for exhance of nutrients and waste
cananilci are used for? cananilci which are used for exhance of nutrients and waste
Slide 17--Osteoclast (Pt 1) *A large foamy cell filled with a very large amount of vesicles and mitochondria *Release hydrochloric acid to breakdown the mineralized matrix *Osteoclasts also release proteases and other enzymes that work to break down collegen
Slide 17--Osteoclast (Pt 2) *The resulting breakdown creates a depression called Howship Lacuna *Takes up calcium and releases it into the bloodstream
What is A large foamy cell filled with a very large amount of vesicles and mitochondria; Release hydrochloric acid to breakdown the mineralized matrix; also release proteases and other enzymes that work to break down collegen ? Osteoclast
Osteoclasts also release proteases and other enzymes that work to break down collegen the resulting breakdown creates a depression called? *Osteoclasts also release proteases and other enzymes that work to break down collegen *The resulting breakdown creates a depression called Howship Lacuna *Takes up calcium and releases it into the bloodstream
The resulting breakdown creates a depression called Howship Lacuna which takes up calcium and releases it into the? *The resulting breakdown creates a depression called Howship Lacuna *Takes up calcium and releases it into the bloodstream
Slide 18---Vitamin D (Pt 1) * Is a hormone *Very similar to steroids except the B ring is absent *Humans synthesize Vitamin D from sunlight
Slide 18---Vitamin D (Pt 2) *Small amounts are found in butter, egg yolk, and liver, rich sources are fish oil and salt water fish *The most toxic of all vitamins can cause the deposition of calcium in organs and tissues
What vitamin is considered a hormone? Vitamin D
What vitamin is similar to steroids except the B ring is absent Vitamin D
Where do Humans synthesize Vitamin D from? Humans synthesize Vitamin D from sunlight
Small amounts of Vitamin D are found in? Small amounts are found in butter, egg yolk, and liver, rich sources are fish oil and salt water fish
What vitamin is the most toxic of all vitamins can cause the deposition of calcium in organs and tissues? Vitamin D--The most toxic of all vitamins can cause the deposition of calcium in organs and tissues
Vitamin D deficiency is the lead to what disease in children? Vitamin D deficiency leads to rickets in children
Slide 24--Vitamin D--Summary (Pt 1) *Vitamin D synthesis begins in the skin from cholesterol *Vitamin D is required for the uptake of calcium from the intestine this is important. Many calcium supplements have vitamin D in them for this reason
Slide 24--Vitamin D--Summary (Pt 2) *The protein Vitamin D-binding protein transports vitamin D Through the blood *Remember from last semester that skin color is a balancing act between vitamin D synthesis and protection of genetic material
Where does vitamin D synthesis begins? Vitamin D synthesis begins in the skin from cholesterol
Slide 25--Calcium Homeostasis Parathyroid Hormone *Parathyroid Hormone is the primary regulator of calcium homeostasis 1) stimulates osteoclast activity 2)Increases Calcium absorption from urine 3)Stimulates Vitamin D synthesis
Define Parathyroid Hormone? Parathyroid Hormone is the primary regulator of calcium homeostasis
What 1) stimulates osteoclast activity 2)Increases Calcium absorption from urine 3)Stimulates Vitamin D synthesis Parathyroid Hormone is the primary regulator of calcium homeostasis 1) stimulates osteoclast activity 2)Increases Calcium absorption from urine 3)Stimulates Vitamin D synthesis
Slide 26--Calcium Homeostasis-Calcitonion Calcitonin is a hormone produced in response to high calcium levels 1) stimulates bone deposition 2) inhibits osteoclast activity
Define Calcitonin Calcitonin is a hormone produced in response to high calcium levels 1) stimulates bone deposition 2) inhibits osteoclast activity
What is a hormone produced in response to high calcium levels 1) stimulates bone deposition 2) inhibits osteoclast activity Calcitonin is a hormone produced in response to high calcium levels 1) stimulates bone deposition 2) inhibits osteoclast activity
Slide 27---Menopause, Estrogen & Bone (Pt 1) *Estrogen is a sex hormone produced in copious amounts in females (ovaries) and is very small amounts in males (adrenal Gland *Developing fetus requires a large amounts od dietary calcium
Slide 27---Menopause, Estrogen & Bone (Pt 1) *Estrogen enchances osteoblast activity and inhibits osteoclast activity *During menopause, estrogen levels drop & osteoclast activity is no longer inhibited *Overall, menopause increase bone resorption & likelihood for osteoporasis & hip fractures
Estrogen is considered to be am? *Estrogen is a sex hormone
What is a a sex hormone produced in copious amounts in females (ovaries) and is very small amounts in males (adrenal Gland *Estrogen a sex hormone produced in copious amounts in females (ovaries) and is very small amounts in males (adrenal Gland
What enchances osteoblast activity and inhibits osteoclast activity? *Estrogen enchances osteoblast activity and inhibits osteoclast activity *During menopause, estrogen levels drop & osteoclast activity is no longer inhibited *Overall, menopause increase bone resorption & likelihood for osteoporasis & hip fractures
During what_____ Does estrogen levels drop & osteoclast activity is no longer inhibited During menopause, estrogen levels drop & osteoclast activity is no longer inhibited
Slide--28 Types of Fractures (Pt 1) *Stress Fractures: Small fractures that are usually asymptomatic; dancer, runners, weight lifters may get these fractures *Closed fractures:When the skin overlying the fractured bone in tact; also called a simple fracture
Slide--28 Types of Fractures (Pt2) *Open fracture:When the fractured bone penetrates the skinl requires immdiate medical attention; also referred to as a "compound fracture" *Complete fracture: Involved a break across the entire section of bone
Slide 28--Types of Fractures (Part 3) *Incomplete Fracture: Involves a partial break with fragments still partially joined Slide 28--Types of Fractures (In class note) Asymptomatic: No symptoms Open Fracture: Can see bone Closed Fracture: Cannot see bone
Define Stress Fractures *Stress Fractures: Small fractures that are usually asymptomatic; dancer, runners, weight lifters may get these fractures
Define Closed fractures? *Closed fractures:When the skin overlying the fractured bone in tact; also called a simple fracture
Define Open fracture *Open fracture:When the fractured bone penetrates the skinl requires immdiate medical attention; also referred to as a "compound fracture"
Define Complete fracture? *Complete fracture: Involved a break across the entire section of bone
Define Incomplete Fracture? *Incomplete Fracture: Involves a partial break with fragments still partially joined
What is Asymptomatic? Asymptomatic: No symptoms *Open Fracture: Can see bone Closed Fracture: Cannot see bone
Slide 30--Bone Repair (PT 1) *Because bone is so highly vascularized bleeding, even if it all remains internal occurs *A blood clot, or fracture hematoma forms
Slide 30--Bone Repair (PT 2) *Osteoblasts are generated in large number osteoclasts and phagocytic cells (like macrophages) Come in and clear out bone fragments and blood clots debris, respectively
Slide 30--Bone Repair (PT 3) *Fibroblast invade the damaged area between the edges of broken bone and lay down fibrocartilage. This fibrocartilage plus is called a cartilaginouscallus
Slide 30--Bone Repair (PT 4) *Fibrocartilage is replaced by bone (chondrocytes die and osteoblasts invade) Replacing the cartilaginous callus with a bony callus *Final touches to the bony callus are made bye osteoclasts and osteoblasts--the repair is complete
Slide 32--Aging skeleton (Pt 1) *Skeleton function beings to wane between 30-40 1) decrease in osteoblast numbers 2)Increase in oseteoblast numbers 3)Shrinkage of osteocytes which cause bone to become filled with holes
Slide 32--Aging skeleton (Pt 2) 4)Decrease in number of trabeculae in spongy bone 5) Overall height decreases about age 35
Slide 35-- Joint Disease and injuries osteoarthritis (Pt 1) Charcaterized by degeneration of the articular cartilage calcification of ligaments and thickening of synoval membrane *Usually appear in people in there 50 and 60s *Leading cause of long-term disability in aging but otherwise healthy individuals
Slide 35-- Joint Disease and injuries osteoarthritis (Pt 2) *Treatment with asprin and ibuprofen, nutritional supplements of glucosamine and chrondolin may prove beneficial
What is Leading cause of long-term disability in aging but otherwise healthy individuals Osteoarthritis
Define Osteoarthritis? Charcaterized by degeneration of the articular cartilage calcification of ligaments and thickening of synoval membrane *Usually appear in people in there 50 and 60s
Slide 36--Joint Diseases and injuries--Rheumatoid Arthitis (pt 1) *An autoimmune disease that involved chronic inflammation of the joints *Eventuallydestroys articular cartilag,causing the bones to fuse together *Tell-tale sigh of rheumatoid arthritis is ulnar deviation of the fingers
Slide 36--Joint Diseases and injuries--Rheumatoid Arthitis (pt 2) *Treatment with TNF blockers inhibit further destruction of articular cartilage
What is an An autoimmune disease that involved chronic inflammation of the joints & Eventuallydestroys articular cartilag,causing the bones to fuse together Rheumatoid Arthritis
Slide 37--Rheumatoid Arthritis (Pt 1) *The normal extracellular matriz of cartiage consists mainly composed of type II collagen, hyaluronan and aggrecan (A sugar mainly foind in articular cartilage)
Slide 37--Rheumatoid Arthritis (Pt 2) *Chronic inflammation from RA results in overexpression of aggreceanases by neraby fibroblasts; loss of aggrecan is an early event in the destruction of articular cartilage
Slide 38--Aggrecan (Pt 1) Aggrecan bonds with keratan (not keratin) and chondroitin. This lends articular cartilage its compressive properties a tensile strength *ADAMTS proteins are aggrecanases.
Define Aggrecan Aggrecan bonds with keratan (not keratin) and chondroitin. This lends articular cartilage its compressive properties a tensile strength
Slide 39 *Nobiletin, a citrus polymethoxy falanoid supressesgene expression and production of aggrecanses -1 and -2 in collagen- induced arthritic mice Slide 39 *Nobiletin, a citrus polymethoxy falanoid supressesgene expression and production of aggrecanses -1 and -2 in collagen- induced arthritic mice
Slide 41--Joint disease and injuries--Gouty Arthritis (pt 1) *An inflammatory disease *High blood concentration of uric acide, waste and sodium crystalize in the synovial fluid *Tophi are aggregation of crystaline sodium and uric acide *Swelling and pain occur in the fingers, wrists, elbows and knees
Slide 41--Joint disease and injuries--Gouty Arthritis (pt 2) *Treated with allopurinol which inhibits the synthesis of uric acid
Gouty is an? An inflammatory disease *High blood concentration of uric acide, waste and sodium crystalize in the synovial fluid
Tendons connect bone to? Tendons connect bone to Muscle
Ligaments connect bone to? Ligaments connect bone to bone
The adult human skeleton contains 500 bones? True or False False
Osteoblasts? Build bone
Osteoclast? Destroy bone
Vitamin D deficiency leads to what disorder in children? Rickets
Vitamin D is required for the uptake of iron from the intestine? True or False? False
Which is not involved in the synthesis of vitamin D? Skin, Kidney, Liver
What is an asymptomatic fracture seen in runners and weight lifers? Stress fracture
When estrogen levels fall during menopause Osteoblast activity decreases
Created by: ghadeer123