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Test1_Chapter 58

Assessment and Management of Patients With Eye and Vision Disorders- Chapter 58

accommodation: process by which the eye adjusts for near distance (eg, reading) by changing the curvature of the lens to focus a clear image on the retina
anterior chamber: space in the eye bordered anteriorly by the cornea and posteriorly by the iris and pupil
aphakia: absence of the natural lens
aqueous humor: watery fluid that fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye
astigmatism: refractive error in which light rays are spread over a diffuse area rather than sharply focused on the retina, a condition caused by differences in the curvature of the cornea and lens
binocular vision: normal ability of both eyes to focus on one object and fuse the two images into one
blindness: inability to see, usually defined as corrected visual acuity of 20/400 or less, or a visual field of no more than 20 degrees in the better eye
bullous keratopathy: corneal edema with painful blisters in the epithelium due to excessive corneal hydration chemosis:
edema of the conjunctiva
cones: retinal photoreceptor cells essential for visual acuity and color discrimination
diplopia: seeing one object as two; double vision
emmetropia: absence of refractive error
enucleation: complete removal of the eyeball and part of the optic nerve
evisceration: removal of the intraocular contents through a corneal or scleral incision; the optic nerve, sclera, extraocular muscles, and sometimes, the cornea are left intact
exenteration: surgical removal of the entire contents of the orbit, including the eyeball and lids
hyperemia: “red eye” resulting from dilation of the vasculature of the conjunctiva
hyperopia: farsightedness; a refractive error in which the focus of light rays from a distant object is behind the retina
hyphema: blood in the anterior chamber
hypopyon: collection of inflammatory cells that has the appearance of a pale layer in the inferior anterior chamber of the eye
injection: congestion of blood vessels
keratoconus: cone-shaped deformity of the cornea
limbus: junction of the cornea and sclera
miotics: medications that cause pupillary constriction
mydriatics: medications that cause pupillary dilation
myopia: nearsightedness; a refractive error in which the focus of light rays from a distant object is anterior to the retina
neovascularization: growth of abnormal new blood vessels
nystagmus: involuntary oscillation of the eyeball
papilledema: swelling of the optic disc due to increased intracranial pressure
photophobia: ocular pain on exposure to light
posterior chamber: space between the iris and vitreous
proptosis: downward displacement of the eyeball resulting from an inflammatory condition of the orbit or a mass within the orbital cavity
ptosis: drooping eyelid
refraction: determination of the refractive errors of the eye and correction by lenses
rods: retinal photoreceptor cells essential for bright and dim light
scotomas: blind or partially blind areas in the visual field
strabismus: a condition in which there is deviation from perfect ocular alignment
sympathetic ophthalmia: an inflammatory condition created in the fellow eye by the affected eye (without useful vision); the condition may become chronic and result in blindness (of the fellow eye)
trachoma: a bilateral chronic follicular conjunctivitis of childhood that leads to blindness during adulthood, if left untreated
vitreous humor: gelatinous material (transparent and colorless) that fills the eyeball behind the lens
Note: Common abbreviations related to vision and eye health are OD (oculus dexter, right eye), OS (oculus sinister, left eye), and OU (oculus uterque, both eyes).
Created by: jhrobins99