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Ch 17 RAD 170

The Pathology Problem

________ is the medical science that is concerned with all aspects of disease. Pathology
A patient with pneumonia (air-filled lungs filled with fluid) - will cause an ______ in attenuation of radiation. increase (the fluid will absorb more radiation than air)
A patient with emphysema (normal lung tissue is destroyed and the air sacs become enlarged) - will cause an _______ in attenuation of radiation. decrease (increased amount of air in the lungs)
If a disease causes the affected body tissue to ______ in thickness, effective atomic number or density, there will be a greater attenuation of the x-ray beam. increase
Diseases that are harder to penetrate are called ______ conditions. additive
There is an ______ relationship between additive conditions and IR exposure (when additive conditions are present, IR exposure will decrease as the extent of the disease increases. inverse
If a disease causes the affected body tissue to ______ in thickness, effective atomic number or density, there will be less attenuation of radiation. decrease
Diseases that are easier to penetrate are called ________ conditions. destructive
There is a ______ relationship between destructive conditions and IR exposure - when destructive conditions are present, the IR exposure will increase and the extent of the disease increases. direct
To produce a visible difference requires a minimal change of ___ - ____ percent in the overall exposure of the IR for film/screen radiography. 25 - 50
Name diseases that may be visible in a radiograph but do not require changes in technique: ulcers, diverticula, simple fractures
Name disease that do not require radiography and are diagnosed through lab testing: diabetes mellitus, anemia, meningitis
A ____ percent in kVp will approximately double the exposure to the IR. 15
____ systems will compensate for most pathological changes by adjusting the exposure automatically. AEC
An _____ is an encapsulated infection abscess
_____ is swelling and causes an increase of the tissue. Edema
A ____ is an abnormal new growth and increase in tissue. tumor
_______ is a collapse of the lung and results in airlessness of all or pare of the lung. Atelectasis
______ is the chronic dilation of the bronchi that results in peribronchial thickening. Bronchiectasis
_______ is an enlargement of the heart. Cardiomegaly
_________ is a condition when the heart is in failure and cardiac output is diminished; lung tissue increases and heart is enlarged. Congestive heart failure
_______ is pus in the thoracic cavity and causes an increase in tissue density. Empyema
__________ is a condition when the pleural cavity fills with either blood or serious fluid. Pleural Effusion (hemothorax, hydrothorax)
_______ is the inhalation of dust particles that can cause fibrotic (scarring) changes, which will cause an increase in tissue density. Pneumoconiosis
_______ is inflammation of lung tissues that causes fluid to fill in the alveolar spaces. pneumonia
_______ is an infection by mycobacteria that causes the inflammatory response. Tuberculosis
________ is a large dilation of the aorta and results in an increased thickness. Aortic Aneurysm
______ is fluid accumulation within the peritoneal cavity that causes an increase in tissue thickness. Ascites
______ are most commonly present in the gallbladder or kidney and are calcified, which causes an increase in atomic number of tissue. Calcified stones
______ is fibrotic change in the liver and causes the liver to enlarge and ascites can result. Cirrhosis
______ is an overgrowth of the hands, feet, face and jaw as a result of hypersecretion of growth hormones. Acromegaly
___________ is a chronic bone infection that results in new bone growth at the infected site. chronic osteomyelitis
_____ is a dilation of the fluid filled cerebral ventricles. Hydrocephalus
______ is the spread of cancer to bone and results in uncontrolled new bone growth. Osteoblastic metastases
________is an increase in bone cell activity which leads to new growth. Pagets disease
______ is an increase in hardening as a result of a chronic inflammation in bone. Sclerosis
______ is wasting away of body tissue with diminished cell proliferation. Atrophy
_______ is a generalized wasting away of body tissue. Emaciation
_____ is the overdistention of the lung tissues by air. Emphysema
_______ is free air in the pleural cavity and displaces normal lung tissue. Pneumothorax
________ is death of bone tissue. Carcinoma
_______ is inflammation of the joints that results in destruction of adjoining bone tissues. Degenerative arthritis
_______ is a malignant tumor of the metaphysis of bone that causes an osteolytic lesion. Fibrosarcoma
______ is a result of bone destruction that result in punched out lesions. Gout
______ is a defect in bone production due to the failure of osteoblast to lay down bone matrix. Osteoporosis
______ is the removal of a lung. Pneumonectomy
_____ _____ is when fluid fills the interstial lung tissues and the alveoli. Pulmonary Edema
___________ is a tumor arising in the bone and cartilage. Osteochondroma
_______ _______ is a psychological eating disorder which results in an extreme wight loss. Anorexia Nervosa
______ is a psychological disorder resulting in abnormal swallowing of air. Aerophagia
______ _______ is an obstructin in the bowel results in the abnormal accumulation of air and fluid. Bowel obstruction
____ _____ is death of bone. Aseptic Necrosis
_______ is oversecretion of the parathryroid hormone; causes calcium to leave bone and enter the blood. Hyperparathryoidism
____ ____ is a malignant tumor that arises from plasma cells of bone marrow. Multiple Myeloma
____ _____ is when some malignancies spread to bone they produce destruction of the bone. Osteolytic Metastases
______ is a defect in bone mineralization. Osteomalacia