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A&P TCN EXCELSIOR

A&P TCN Excelsior

QuestionAnswer
Two body regions Axial & Appendicular
Axial Region contains head, neck & trunk (contains dorsal & ventral cavities)
Dorasal Cavity cranial cavity (contains the brain)
Ventral Cavity thoraic & abdominaopelvic
Dorsal& ventral two body cavities
contains upper & lower limbs appendicular Region
posterior farther from the back
caudal toward the tail
toward the front Anterior
distal farther from trunk or attachment (ft vs knees)
proximal closer to the trunk or attachment spo (knees vs feet)
lateral closer away from midline (ears vs eyes)
closer to midline eyes vs ears) medial
lying on back, face up supine
transverse section aka horizontal superior or inferior portions
lying on stomach, face down prone
parasagittal plane unequal or right parts; lies parallel to the midsagittal plane but to the left or right of the idline; it divides the body into unequal left & right parts
coronal anterior or posterior parts
sagittal plane divides body into left & right parts
midline, equal parts midsagittal section
ipsilateral on same side
contralateral on opposite side
Thoraic in ventral covity; contains heart, lungs & thymus
in ventral cavity; contains abd. cavity & pelvic cavity abdominopelvic
pelvic cavity contains bladder, urethra, reproductive organs, distal portions of the large intestines
anatomical position standing, feet forward, palms turned facing forward, thumbs towards the outside
Anterior refers to a body part that is more toward the front of the body then another part. The eyes vs the brain
Lateral refers to a body part being closer to the side of the body than another part with respect to an imaginary midline dividing the body into equal right and left halves. The ear vs eye
Proximal refers to a body part that is closer to the point of attachment or closer to the trunk of the body than another part. The knee vs the foot
Distal refers to a body part that is farther from the point of attachment or farther from the truck of the body then another part. The foot vs knee
Posterior refers to a body part that is more toward the back of the body and then another part. The brain vs the eyeballs
Superior refers to a body part that is above another part. The trunk vs the legs
Inferior refers to a body part that is below another part. The feet versus the legs
Superficial refers to a body part that is closer to the surface than another part. The skin versus the skeleton
deep refers to a body part that is more internal and farther from the surface than another part. The skeleton versus the skin
Ipsilateral a body part that is on the same side of the body. Right arm and right leg are
Contralateral refers to a body part and it is on the opposite side of the body. Right arm and left leg
Medial refers to a body part that is closer to the imaginary midline dividing the body into equal left & right halves. The eyes vs the ears.
cell structural & functional unit of living organ., contains a nucleus & vaarity of organelles enclosed by a limiting membrane.
centriole minute body found near the nucleus of the cell, active in cell division
cilia tiny, hairlike projections on cell surfaces that move in a wavelike manner
chromatin structures in the nucleus that carry the herediatary factors (genes)
chromosomes barlike bodies of tightly coiled chromatin; visible during cell division.
cytoplasm the cellular material surrounding the nucleus & enclosed by the plasma membrane
endoplamic reticulum membranous network of tubular or saclike channels in the cytoplasm of a cell; 2 kinds-smooth & rough
smooth ER part of ER that is free of ribosomes
Rough ER Part of ER that is studded with ribosomes
golggi apparatus membranous system clos to the cell nucleus that packages protein secretions for export, packages enzymes into lysosomes for cellular use, and modifies proteins destined to become part of a cell membrane
lysosomes organellees that originate from the Golgi apparatus and contain strong digestive enzymes
microvilli tiny projections on the free surfaces of some epithelial cells; increase surface area for absorption.
mitochondria cytoplasmic organelles responsible for ATP generation for cellular activites.
nucleus control center of a cell; contains genetic material
nuclear envelope the double membrane barrier in the cell nucleus
nucleoli dense spherical bodies in the cell nucleus involved with ribosomal aubunit synthesis & storage
plasma membrane membrane, composed of 3 lamina layers, that encloses cell contents; outer limiting cell membrane
4 stages of cell cycle G1, s, G2 & M
5th stage of cell cycle G0. is where the cell reamins indefinitely until it begins the cell cycle again
Do cells ever leave G0 Some cells DO NOT leave this stage
Do cells skip cell cycle G0 some cells that go through division rapidly skip this stage, such as bone marrow
Cells begin their cell cycle by entering this Interphase
interphase the cell perpares for division by duplication DNA
interphase includes the stages G1, S & G2
golgi appartatus is a sorting station
G1 the cell synthesizes DNA & protein & increases organellee & cytoskeletal elements. The chromatin consists of long slender rods jumbled together in the nucleus.
S the synthesis stage. Nuclear DNA replicates along its centrioles, which are small structures, made up mostly of microtubules, that associate with a chromosome's DNA. the chromatin begin to coil, so that they shorten.
G2 RNA & protein are synthesized. Proof reading also occurs: the Dna replicated in this phase is checked for mistakes.
A signal to self destruct apotosis
the difference betwen G1 & G2 G1 DNA & protein are made, In G2 RNA & protein are made
M stage cell divides into 2 identical cells through divisions of the nucleus (mitosis) & cytoplasm (sytokensis). Over 5 different stages, the centioles pull the chromosomes apart & the cell divides in two.
1st prophase duplicated chromosomes appear & then split into identical halves(chromatids), attaches by spindles(centromeres). the nuclear membrane disappears & spindle fibers form in cytoplasm, radiating from 2 centrioles located at opposite poles of the cell
2 identical halves of chromosomes chromatids
spindles that attach chromatids centromeres
metaphase the spindle fibers pull the centromeres, aligning them in the middle of the spindle or the equatorial plate of the cell. The 2 chromatids are clearly visible in this stage
Anaphase the centromeres split, pulling sister chromatids to opposite sides of the cell. by the end- 46 chromosomes lie at each side of the cell. When chromosomes are separated, each sister chromatid is considered a new chromosome
telophase a nuclear membrane forms around a group of 46 chromosomes. the spindle fibers disappear, and the chromosomes uncoil. Cytokensis occurs 7 the cytoplasm divides into equal parts. 2 identical cells have been formed.
After the telophase each new cell moves back to the G0 stode 7 is ready to begin the process again after this stage
epithelial tissues covers all body surface, there are 3 major types, and are based in the number of cell layers in each type. And then 3 types are based on their cell shape.
simple epithelium one cell layer thick
stratified epithelium are composed of multiple cell layers.
pseudostratified spithelium consists of a signle cell ayer, it appears multilayered. the arrangement of the nuclei gives a stratified appearance.
squamous epithelial cell shape, flat; resemle paving stones or floor tiles
cuboidal epithlial cell shape, cubelike; about wide as they are tall
columnar epithelial cell shape, tall and thin, heights greater than their widths.
How to name epithelial cells first is how many layers and the second name indicated the shape of the cell at the free surface
transitional epithelial cells are found in the squamos epithelial that must undergo streatching such as the urinary bladder, depending on the degree of the stretch at any given time they may appear squamous, cuboidal, or colomnar shape.
connective tissue binds body parts together, support & protection, framework, fill in spaces, store fat, produce blood cells, protect against infections, & help repair tissue damage. spaced farther apart and have more matric between them.
matrix intracellular material; found between connective tissue; consists of fibers & a ground substance whose consistancy caries (fluid/blood, semisolid/cartilage, solid/bone)
Connective tissues are usually able to divide & replace themselves. have good bld supplies and are well nurioushed.
Muscle tissue one of 2 basic tissue types that can respond to stimuli. its response is contraction. Has 3 types of tissue.
Muscle tissue types skeletal, cardiac, & smooth
skeletal tissue a muscle tissue; 40% of the bodys weight, responsible for locomotion, facial expressions, posture, resp. movements. Under control by voluntary, conscious, control by the nervous system.
Muscle tissue one of 2 basic tissue types that can respond to stimuli. its response is contraction. Has 3 types of tissue.
Muscle tissue types skeletal, cardiac, & smooth
skeletal tissue a muscle tissue; 40% of the bodys weight, responsible for locomotion, facial expressions, posture, resp. movements. Under control by voluntary, conscious, control by the nervous system.
smooth muscle type of muscle tissue; found on walls of holow organs, internal muscles of eyes, wall of bld vessels. performs-propelling urine, mixing food in the stomach & intestines, dilating/constricting the pupils, regulating flow of bld.
cardiac muscle type of muscle found only in the heart. its contractions provide the major force for moving bld through the circulatory system.
collagen, elastin, chrondroitin, & hyaluronic acid intracellular substances formed by connective tissues
collagen, elastin giant fiborous molecules, may be arranges as a bundle or a mesh
chondrotin tough, flexible material, major component of cartilage
hyaluronic acid forms a gel that cements cells together ans acts as a cushion.
conective tissue major catergories connective tissue proper, cartilage, bone, blood-lymphoid tissue & bls forming tissue, adipose tissue
nervous tissue consists of neurons & neuroglial cells
neurons nerve cells, funcional cells of nervous tissue, transmit electrical signals. Consists of 3 principal parts
3 principal parts of neurons soma, dendrites, & one axon or nerve fiber
soma contains the nucleus, principle part in a neuron
dendrites extendes from the soma, recieve informationand transmit towards the soma & one axon, principle part of a neuron
axon transmits informations away from the soma, principal part of a neuron
neuroglial cells support neurons and are smaller and more numerous than neurons.
lacation of nervous tissue brain, spinal cord, 7 peripheral nerves
functions of nervous tissue detect stimuli, respond & transmit information to other cells.
key features of nervous tissue few neurons with cytoplasmic extensions and multiple neuroglial cells.
otic ear
nasal nose
oral mouth
cephalic head
frontal forehead
orbital eye cavity
cervical neck
acromial point of shoulder
axillary armpit
mammary breast
brachial arm
antecubital front of elbow
antebrachial forearm
buccal cheek
mental chin
sternal breastbone
pectoral region chest
coxal hip
abdominal abdomen
genital reproductive organs
carpal wrist
palmar palm
digital finger
tarsal ankle
inguinal groin
umbilical navel
cural leg
pedal foot
occipital back of head
acromial point of shoulder (posterior region of the body)
vertebral spinal column(posterior region of the body)
brachial arm (posterior region of the body)
dorsal back (posterior region of the body)
cubital elbow (posterior region of the body)
lumbar lower back (posterior region of the body)
sacral between hips (posterior region of the body)
gluteal buttocks (posterior region of the body)
perineal (posterior region of the body)
femoral thigh (posterior region of the body)
popliteal back of knee (posterior region of the body)
crural leg (posterior region of the body)
plantar sole (posterior region of the body)
Right hypochondriac region contains the liver
epigastric region contains the pancreas & stomach
Left hypochondriac region contains the spleen
Right lumbar region contains the ascending colon of large intestine
umbilical region containing the transverse colon and small intestine
Left lumbar region contains the descending colon
Right iliac region containing the appendix
hypo gastric region containing the rectum and urinary bladder
Left iliac region containing the descending colon and small intestine
Plasma membrane a bilayer of phospholipids each cell has this as its outer boundary
The plasma membrane contains membrane proteins embedded in it and attached to its surfaces
Intrinsic membrane proteins are tightly associated with the membrane and in some cases span it from one side to another
Extrinsic membrane proteins are less tightly attached and it may be removed by chemical treatments that do not dissolve the membrane
Glycoproteins strands of sugar molecules are attached to the proteins
Receptors for detection of chemical messages from other cells
Transport proteins that determine what goes into and out of the cell
adhesion molecules that allow the cells of a tissue to recognize one another and stick together
cytoplasm contains a number of characteristic organelle, the intracellular fluid
Nucleus contains the DNA together with molecules that affect specific parts of the genetic code
Endoplasmic reticulum an internal membrane system that contains proteins and lipids destined for various metabolic fate within the cell or secretion to the exterior or for incorporation into the plasma membrane
ribosomes molecular machines composed of protein and ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA)
ribosomes synthesize proteins based on codes delivered to the home in the form of messenger RNA (mRNA)
Golgi apparatus closely stacked sacs of ER that serve as a sorting station for proteins synthesized by ribosomes attached to the ER, these proteins are labeled for various destinations in the cell
Mitochondria or rod like structures consisting of a double bilayer membrane, the site of the reactions of terminal oxidative metabolism, where the energy from oxidation of foodstuffs is applied to the synthesis of ATP
atp the general chemical energy source for energy requiring cellular processes
adp in energy depleted form of the same molecule
Cytoskeleton the scaffold of filaments within the cytoplasm that allow the cell to maintain a form and to move
Three basic types of filaments microfilaments, intermediate filament and microtubules
Differentiation a process in which un specialized cells acquire specific cellular structures and become specialized to perform specific function
Tissues consist of differentiated cells that share similar structures and cooperate to perform a common function
In the earliest stages of embryonic development the unspecialized cells of the embryo separate into three layers
three layers the embryo separate into ectoderm ,endoderm ,mesoderm
four specific tissue type nervous,epithelial , muscle and connective
Nervous tissue and epithelial tissue rise ectoderm & endoterm
Muscle and connect to tissue rise from mesoderm
neurons generate and conduct electrical impulses and communicate with other cells by way of chemical messages and glia
glia supports the neurons and maintains a favorable environment for their functions
Epithelial tissue consist of sheets of cells
Epithelial cells also form the endocrine glands and exocrine glands
Indo Clinton glands secreted chemical messengers called hormones into the blood
Exocrine glands secrete substances by way of ducts to the exterior
epithelia are classified into two basic structural types simple and stratified
Simple epithelia one cell layer thick
Stratified epithelia are composed of multiple cell layers
Pseudo-stratified some simple epithellia are said to be this, they do consist of one cell layer but some of the cells are not tall enough to reach all the way from one side of the sheet to the other
epithelial cells of body surfaces are classified according to their shape
squamous cells flattened and resemble a paving stones
cuboidal cells are as wide as they are tall
Columnar cells with heights greater than their width
Transitional epithelial cells found in squamous cells that must undergo stretching, as in the urinary bladder
Muscle tissue is specialized for contraction & generation of force
Muscle tissue can be divided into skeletal, cardiac, smooth
Skeletal muscle is attached to the bony skeleton and moves body parts relative to one another
Cardiac muscle which makes up the walls of the heart and is responsible for circulating blood to all parts of the body
Smooth muscle surrounds hollow internal organs including the stomach and intestine, the air passages in the lungs, and blood vessels including the iiris of the eye
Connective tissue holds body parts together and contributes to the structural integrity of the other tissue types
The major types of intra cellular substances formed by connective tissues are collagen, elastin chondroitin, and hyaluronic acid
Collagen and elastin Giant, fibrous molecules that may be arranged in bundles or as a mesh
chondroitin is a tough flexible material that is a major component of cartilage one form of connective tissue
hyaluronic acid forms a gel that cements cells together and acts as a cushion
Fibroblasts the intracellular materials are secreted by characteristic cells called this
Connective tissue includes connectice tissue proper, cartilage, bone, blood lymphoid tissue and blood forming tissue, adipose tissue
Connective tissue proper composes a loosely arranged structural framework for almost every tissue
tendons and ligaments connective tissue proper, are composed mainly of bundles of collegagen & elastin fiber is all with the same orientation
tendons the structures that connect the skeletal muscles with the bony skeleton
Ligaments the structures that hold joint together
Cartilage strong flexible smooth material composed of collagen & chondroitin that poured some soft tissues covers the end of bones and provides bearing surfaces for joints
Cartilage is secreted by cells called chondrocytes
Bone is and role is a hard rigid material that makes up the bulk of the adult skeleton, majority of bone mass is composed of calcium phosphate, its role is support in movement, reservoir of calcium and phosphate, contains a bone marrow
bone marrow Is the site of synthesis of blood cells in adults
Compact or dense bone the outer covering of bones, surrounds a core of cancellous or spongy bone
osteons units that compact bone is composed of
haversian canal each osteon surrounds a central one of these, contains blood vessels and nerves
lamellae concentric ring of mineralized intracellular substances that surround the haversian canal
lacunae these spaces are between the lamellae which are occupied by osteocytes
Osteocytes bone cells
Two types of osteocytes osteoblast & osteoclasts
Osteoblast synthesize bone
osteoclasts break down bone read canaliculi
cancelllous bone consist of meshwork of mineralized trabeculae with bone marrow filling the spaces
Blood consist of plasma some organic solutes, dissolved gases and proteins, and formed elements
Plasma a fluid component containing salts
erythrocytes red blood cells
leukocytes white blood cells
thrombocytes platelets
Functions of blood transport oxygen and nutrients to tissues, to carry away carbon dioxide and other end products of metabolism for disposal and to distribute hormones and elements of the immune system throughout the body
Adipose tissue specialized for storage of fat, and energy reserve, cushion internal organs, reduces heat loss through the skin, gives the body its contour and consist adipocytes
adipocytes derived from fibroblasts, are found in adipose tissue, the interior is dominated by a droplet of fat
Movement of fat between adipose tissues & the bloodstream is controlled by the nervous and endocrine systems
Organ a structure that is composed of two or more tissues and carry out multiple functions
Different major organ systems nervous, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive,excretory,lymphatic, reproductive,endocrine, immune, integumentary
The heart is blank to the arms medial
The wrist is blank to the elbow distal
The elbow is blank between the shoulder & the wrist intermediate
The lungs are blank to the ribs deep
Sagittal/parasagittal plane a vertical plane dividing the body into two sides
Transverse plane a poor zonal plane that divides the body into superior and inferior parts
Frontal plane a vertical plane that divides the body into dorsal and ventral parts
Dorsal cavity includes cranial cavity and spinal canal
ventral cavity includes thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity
Scrotal cavity only present in males
Formation of a bilayer membrane a bilayer can be formed by pure phospholipid; cholesterol improves its stability but it is not a necessary component; proteins are essential for many of the functions of cellular membranes but by themselves can not form a membrane
Which cellular organelles are composed of or bounded by bilayer lipid membranes plasma membrane, nucleus, er,golgi apparatus and mitochondria
The largest organ the skin
The skins functions protection, Thermo regulation, somatosensory perception, vitamin D synthesis.
Vitamin D is actually a hormone, is important in calcium homeostasis
Two major components of the skin epidermis and dermis
The epidermis a stratified squamous epithelium that contains; keratinocytes, melanocytes, and immunocytes
Keratinocytes produce the protein keratin, responsible for the wear resistant and waterproof qualities of the skin
Melanocytes produce melanin, responsible for skin color
Immunocytes provide a first line of defense against invasion by microbes fungi and parasites
Layers of the epidermis stratum basale or stratum germinativum; stratum spinosum; stratum granulosum; (hands & feet- stratum lucidum); stratum corneum or cornified layer
keratinocytes last about two weeks
Stratum basale or stratum Germinativum new keratinocytes are continuously produced from stem cells in this deepest layer
Stratum granulosum as cells leave the stratum spinosome and this, they begin to synthesize & store keratohyalin
keratohyalin a precursor of keratin
In the palms and soles, keratinocytes that have begun to synthesize keratin precursors leave the stratum granulosum and to form this stratum lucidum
Stratum lucidum consists of cells filled with droplets of elaidin
elaidin a translucent substance formed from keratohyalin
Stratum lucidum is absent in the thinner, hairy skin that covers most of the body surface
The outer most layer of the epidermis stratum corneum or cornified layer
Stratum corneum 20 to 30 cells deep, consist entirely of dead keratinocytes filled with keratin
sebaceous glands secrete sebum, holocrine glands, and inactive before
sebum oil, moisturizes and contains antimicrobial chemicals
holocrine glands the secretion is formed as a product of the breakdown of dead gland cells
The increase in sebum secretion at puberty is stimulated by an increase in androgen production
sudoriferous glands sweat glands; two main types: eccrine and apocrine sweat glands; both are merocrine glands
eccrine sweat glands are scattered throughout the body surface but are most dense on the palms and soles; tubular structures; main role to promote heat loss from the body surface; controlled by the nervous system part of the process of thermal regulation
merocrine glands part of the secretory cells themselves appears in the secretion
apocrine sweat glands are confined to the axilla, pubic region, and areolae; they begin to function only after puberty and when the secretion is acted on by bacteria it causes body odor
axilla armpit
areolae pigmented areas of the breast
mammory glands located within the breast of females are modified sweat glands; lactation is under endocrine control
ceruminous glands are located in the external auditory meatus ( ear canal) and secretes cerumen
cerumen aka earwax, a protective coating for the meatus.
meatus ear canal
Two layers of dermis can be distinguished papillary and reticular layer
Papillary layer comprises the superficial 20% of the dermis, nipple, plays an important role in heat loss, responsible for fingerprints
reticular layer comprises the remaining 80% of , composed of a network of crisscrossing collagen and elastin fibers that give the skin its elasticity and resilience
Hypo dermis subcutaneous layer containing loose connective tissue, arterioles, venules, and adipose tissue
Heat can be lost to the environment through radiation, convection, conduction
Radiation transfer by a electro magnetic radiation
Convection air movement across the skin surface
Conduction direct heat flow
First degree burn involve mainly damage to the epidermis, required no special treatment, and typically heal rapidly without scarring
Second degree burns akapartial thickness burns, in that ball the some damage to the dermis, blisters, healing is slower, greater chance of scar formation, may need skin grafts.
Third degree burns aka full thickness burns, both the dermis & subcutaneous tissue are affected, serious challenge to healing & homeostasis, infection, body surface affected reaches 20% patient high chance of dying, tx, electrolyte replacement, antibiotic, skin grafts.
melanin absorbs some of the UV energy
Basal cell carcinoma arises from cells in the basal layer does not spread rapidly and tends not to metastasize
squamous cell carcinoma arises from cells in the stratum spinosum, higher probability of metastasis
Malignant melanoma arises from melanocytes or pigmented moles, some spread rapidly in metastasize freely to other body tissues
The cell type in the skin that is responsible for the skin color is called melanocyte
The most abundant type of cell in the epidermis is called keratinocyte
The two most common protein molecules in the dermis collagen & elastin
Hair and nails are durable because they possess an abundance of this protein keratin
The skin protects the body from dehydration the dead layers of epithelial cells form a tough barrier that is covered with sebum
sebum a mixture that seals in moisture and repels bacteria
The skin protects the body from the invasion of bacteria the immunocytes present in the epithelium protect against any bacteria that invade the skin
nevi pigmented moles
nevi have a significant probability of giving rise to melanoma they have plenty of melanocytes, represent areas of abnormal growth, they might be composed of cells that have already undergone changes to become cancer cells
In the anatomical position The head is erect with head facing forward
The appendicular region of the body consists of the arms, hands, legs, & ft
A midsagittal section divides the body into equal rt &left halves
the diaphram separates the thoracic & abdominal cavities
2 structures on the same side of the body are Ipsilateral
The cellular organelle where ATP is synthesized is the mitochondrion
A difference rough & smooth ER is that rough ER has ribosomes associated with it.
stem cells are found in tissues that exhibit regeneration.
An epithelial cell type that can tolerate stretching (as in the urinary bladder) is called transitional.
the framework for almost every tissue is composed of connective tissue proper
the two subdivisons of blood are plasma & formed elements
Organs are composed of 2 or more tissues
the cells in the skin responsible for color melanocytes
skin cells are renewed from the deepest epidermal layer, called the stratum germanitivum
epidermal glands mammary glands are modified sweat glands
the resilient response of the skin to mechanical distortion ia attributed to the connective tissue of the dermis.
homeostasis in the human body is valuable because it provides a regulated enviroment in which cells can perform their specialized functions.
isotopes of physiologically important elemants reveal that there is a turnover in the composition of all the body constituents.
according to the principle of negative feedback detection of deviation from the set point value drives changes that minimize the deviation
a determinant of the rate of diffusion the greater the distance, the slower the the rate of diffusion. the diffusion coefficent is how easily the particles move through the medium. the greater the cross-sectional area available, the faster the diffusion.
The Nernst equation ( written for k+ for example, E K+=RT/zF in ({K+} extracellular/{k+} intracellular expresses a mathematical relationship between electrical & chemical energy
2 factors that make K+ more important the Na+ in determining the resting potential the membrane is more permeable to K+, & the concentration gradient is higher for K+
large, lipid-insoluble molecules can cross membranes by interacting with transport proteins
endocytosis a mechanism for removing surface receptors
osmosis is diffusion of water from areas of higher water concentration to areas of lower water concentration
swelling or skrinage of cells can be avoided if the enviroment of the cells is isotonic to the cytoplasm
the subatomic particle that is uncharged is the neutron
isotopes forms of elements that have different atomic weights
to be radioactive an element must UNDERGO A DECAY PROCESS, EMITTING HIgh-ENERGY PARTICLES FROM ITS NUCLEUS
chemical bonds form when electrons in the outer orbital of stoms interact
present in highest concentration in cytoplasm K+
valence is defined as how many electrons the element can accept or donate
a polar bond results when the electron donor & acceptor are of unequal srength
the diversity of biological compounds containing carbon is due to its valence of either +4 or -4
the strongest type of chemical bond is the covalent bond
growth, repair, & storage of energy involve this kind of process anabolic processess
when a donor atom donates electrons, it is oxidized
hydrogen bonds form between hydrogens bonded to nitrogen or oxygen
the energy barrier that reactants must cross to become products is called the activation energy
when a system that contains reactants & products is at equilibrium the concentrations of reactants & product remain constant
Created by: MiglettMomma24