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VNSG 1329 Exam 1

Medical Surgical Nursing

QuestionAnswer
Outer layer of the skin Epidermis
Inner layer of the skin Dermis
Pigment that determines the color of skin Melanin
Layer of dead skin stratum corneum
tough protective protein formed by the stratum corneum Keratin
Four major functions of the skin Protection, Temperature regulation, sensory processing and chemical synthesis
1st line of defense Protection
The skin regulates body temperature by dilating and constricting blood vessels
Heat is also lost by four methods Radiation, Conduction, evaporation, and convection
Radiation transfer of heat into environment
transfer of heat through direct contact Conduction
loss of moisture or water (sweat) evaporation
transfer of heat from body by currents of air or liquids convection
Nerves in skin respond to pressure, pain, heat, and cold
Vitamin D synthesized when skin exposed to UV Chemical synthesis
Originates in hair follicle in dermis Hair
Fine and thin hair Vellus hair
coarse hair terminal hair
decreased melanin production causes graying hair
connected to each hair follicle sebaceous and sweat glands
Eccrine glands secrete water-like sweat
Aprocrine glands secrete thick oily sweat
Hard keratin, protective function, abundant capillary blood supply; Lunula Nails
Pruritus means itching
Flat, round colored example freckles or rash Macule
Elevated with raised border, solid example wart Papule
Elevated filled with serum, example blister Vesicle
Elevated, irregular border, no free fluid example hives/welt wheal
elevated filled with pus example boil pustule
elevated solid mass that extends into deeper tissue, example enlarged lymph node nodule
encapsulated, round, fluid filled or solid mass beneath skin example tissue growth Cyst
occur when capillary blood flow to an area is reduced Pressure Ulcer
Coccyx, sacrum, hips, back of head, shoulder blades, heels, elbows, and ears common areas for breakdown
when you push on a red area if it stays red breakdown has already started Blanching
Redness-fails to resume normal color or blanch when pressure is relieved Stage 1 pressure ulcer
blistering or skin tear stage 2 pressure ulcer
shallow crater with drainage stage 3 pressure ulcer
deep ulcerated tissue; exposed muscle and bone; sepsis-most traumatic and life-threatening. stage 4 pressure ulcer
Turn patient frequently will advoid pressure sores
Dehydration, diaphoresis, immobility, inactivity, incontinence, edema, and malnutrition risk factors for developing pressure sores
because dressing changes are painful what should you do one hour before the procedure Medicate the patient
visual inspection, culture and sensitivity tests, allergy tests, wood's light examination, potassium hydroxide test, fungal culture, skin biopsy integumentary diagnostic tests
corticosteroids and antihistamines allergy type symptoms
antibiotics and antiseptics killing bacteria
scabicides and pediculocides itch mite and lice
antiseborrheic agents dandruff shampoo
keratolytics-for warts anywhere with thickened skin
cool, soothing effect and sterile procedure for broken skin wet dressings
aid in removal of crusts and scales-debridement therapeutic baths
application of extreme cold to destroy tissue and frozen tissue thaws into gelatin like substance and sloughs off and scab forms cryosurgery
use of electrical energy converted to heat which destroys tissue, used for plantar warts and skin tumors electrodessication
treatment of malignant skin lesions radiation therapy
combination of psoralen methoxsalen and ultraviolet A light photo chemotherapy
pigmenting the dermal layer of skin with needles containing dye Tattoo
laser treatment, dermabrasion, salabrasion, scarification, and plastic surgery types of tattoo removal
a general term that refers to an inflammation of the skin accompanied by a red rash Dermatitis
a term for a group of medical conditions that cause the skin to become inflamed or irritated Eczema
Two common types of dermatitis Allergic and irritant dermatitis
develops in people who are sensitive to one or more substances such as; drugs, fibers in clothing, cosmetics, plants, and dyes Allergic dermatitis
is a localized reaction that occurs when the skin comes into contact with a strong chemical Irritant dermatitis
remove the substances causes the reaction, flushing skin with cool water, calamine lotion, anti-itch topical amount treatment for dermatitis
tends to coincide with puberty, it is an inflammatory disorder that affects the sebaceous gland Acne Vulgaris
a chronic disorder that manifests in a variety of ways, characterized by a rosy appearance Rosacea
chronic vasodilation of blood vessels, causes hypertrophy of dermal tissue and sebaceous glands causing papules and pustules Pathophysiology of Rosacea
triggers of rosacea hot beverages, spicy foods, and exposure to environmental elements
antibiotics to decrease inflammation, topical anti-inflammatory, and laser treatment to remove thickened skin treatments for rosacea
a boil furuncle
having multiple furuncles Furunculosis
a furuncle from which pus drains carbuncle
caused by skin infections with organisms that usually exist harmlessly on the skin surface furuncles, furunculosis, and carbuncles
when the integrity of the skin is impaired microorgansims can enter and colonize the skin
may appear anywhere on the body but especially around the neck, axillary, and groin areas furuncles and carbuncles
hot wet soaks, antibiotics, incision and drainage treatment for furuncles and carbuncles
a chronic noninfectious inflammatory disorder of the skin that affects both men and women Psoriasis
skin cells behave as if they need to repair a wound the cells proliferate faster keratinocytes
psoriasis can cause patches of erythema with silvery scales on elbows, knees, trunk, and scalp
psoriasis can be treated with corticosteriods, retinoids, vitamin D, and photo chemotherapy
a fairly common infectious skin disease caused by infestation with the itch mite Scabies
treatment for scabies is scabicides
Dermatophytoses also called fungi or tinea
tinea pedis athletes foot
tinea capitis head, can cause temporary hair loss
tinea corporis on the body also known as ringworm
tinea cruris jock itch
shingles is also called herpes zoster
a skin disorder that develops years after an infection with chicken pox Shingles
shingles is mostly unilateral
symptoms you can have with shingles low grade fever, headache, and malaise
causes an infection that begins with itching and burning and progresses to the development of vesicles that rupture and form crusts Herpes Simplex
infections on the face and upper body HSV Type 1
genital infections caused by herpes simplex HSV Type 2
can be transmitted by direct contact Herpes
most common type of cancer in the US skin cancer
may appear as scaly ulcers or raised lesions with irregular borders Squamous cell carcinoma
usually begins as a painless, nodular lesion that have a pearly appearance Basal cell carcinoma
raised black or brown lesions, most serious type of skin cancer Malignant Melanoma
Diagnosis of skin cancer is confirmed by skin biopsy
an inflammation of the skin where two skin surfaces touch Intertrigo
an infection of the deep fascia structures of the skin Necrotizing Fascilitis
flesh eating bacteria Necrotizing Fascilitis
is usually caused by strep pyogenes and is local tenderness and redness Cellulitis
the medical term for lice pediculosis
a fungal dermatophyte infection of the fingernails and toenails Onychomyosis
the medical term for ingrown toenail Onychocryptosis
capillary refill should be less than three seconds
concave shaped nails may indicate iron deficiency
suggest long standing cardio-pulmonary disease Clubbing
Etiology of burns Heat, chemical and electrical
cell damage; protein coagulation Heat burn
liquefy tissue; loosen cell attachment chemical burn
cardiac dsyrythmias; CNS complications Electrical burns
partial thickness burn like sunburn, epidermis remains intact First degree burn
painful and usually blistered or weepy, dermis involved classified as superficial or deep partial thickness burn second degree burn
large, thick walled blisters or by edema, exposed dermis third degree burn
involve epidermis, dermis, and underlying tissues including fat, muscle and bone also called full thickness burn fourth degree burn
hypotension, tachycardia, tachypnea, oliguria, or anuria Hypovolemic shock
suspect inhalation injury if the pt has facial burns, stridor, decreased O2
begins with the injury and ends when fluid shifts have stabilized emergent care
burn injury assessed, watch for impaired ventilation, respiratory failure Acute care
intended to promote healing, prevent infection, control heat loss, retain function and minimize disfigurement wound care after a burn injury
Sources of grafts-self Autograft
Sources of grafts-cadaver sloughs away-7days Allograft
Sources of grafts- animals slough away-7 days Hetergraft
epidermis and thin layer of dermis harvested from donor site Spilt thickness
epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue harvested Full thickness
harvested tissue stretched to cover larger area Slit graft
the epidermis is completely replaced every 35-45 days
a yeast infection caused by the candida albicans microorganisms Candidiasis
Created by: nursekk