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Endocrine System

What are endocrine glands? Ductless glands that produce hormones
What are exocrine glands? Glands that produce secretions. Example: sweat and salivary glands
What are hormones? Chemical messengers released into the blood and transported throughout the body
What are autocrine hormones? Chemicals that exert their effects on the same cells that excrete them
What are paracrine hormones? Act locally but effect cell types other than those releasing the paracrine chemicals
Hormones are made of? Amino acids, amines, polypetids, proteins
Most hormones are ____ ____ based? Amino acid
Steroids are synthesized from? Cholesterol
Nearly all hormones can either be classified as ____ or ____ ? Amino acid based; steriods
Of the hormones produced by the major endocrine glands, only ____ and ____ are steriods. Sex hormones; corticosteriods
Hormones act on their _____ _____ that have specific receptors for the hormones. Target cells
Amino acid based hormones are _____ soluble and (can/cannot) enter cell membranes. water; cannot
Amino acid based hormone receptors are located (inside/outside) of the cell? Outside
Steroid based hormones (can/cannot) cross cell membranes. They bind to receptors located (inside/outside) the cell can; inside
The interaction of a steriod hormone entering the cell and binding to the receptor "turns on" a _____ then prompts transcription of _____ to produce a messenger _____. gene; DNA; RNA
Amino acid hormones bind to a _____ linked to the cell membrane receptor. G-protein
Thyroxine is an exception, it is an _____ _____ and its receptors are located ________________. Amino acid; within the cell on DNA
The synthesis and release of most hormones are regulated by some type of (positive/negative) feedback system. negative
What are the three types of endocrine gland stimulation? humoral, hormonal, neural
_____ stimulation - Hormones secreted in response to changing blood levels of certain ions, molecules, etc. Humoral
_____ stimulation - Hormones secreted in response to other stimulating hormones. Hormonal
_____ stimulation - Hormones secreted in response to stimulation by nerve fibers. Neural
What hormone produces positive feedback mechanism? Oxytocin
What is another name for the pituitary gland? Hypophysis
The pituitary gland is divided into what two lobes? Neurohypophysis (posterior lobe and infundibulum); Adenohypophysis (anterior lobe)
What is the function of the adenohypophysis? Synthesizes and secretes a number of hormones
What is the function of the neurohypophysis? Stores and releases hormones produced by the hypothalamus
How are the neurohypophysis and the hypothalamus connected? Nerve bundles called: hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract
Where are oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) produced? Nuclei of the hypothalamus
Where are oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) transported and stored? Neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary)
Is the connection between the anterior lobe and the hypothalamus direct or indirect? Indirect
What is the connection between the anterior lobe and the hypothalamus? Vascular connection: hypophyseal portal system
What are the 6 main hormones produced by the anterior pituitary gland? growth hormone (GH); thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH); adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH); follicle stimulating hormone (FSH); luteinizing hormone (LH); prolactin (PRL)
What are tropic hormones? Hormones that regulate the activity of other endocrine glands.
What are the four anterior pituitary tropic hormones? TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH
What hormone is produced by somatotrophs of the anterior pituitary and has both growth promoting and metabolic actions? Growth hormone (GH)
What are the major targets of growth hormone (GH)? Bones and skeletal muscles
What is the hypothalamic hormone that stimulates GH release? Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)
What is the hypothalamic hormone the inhibits GH release? Growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH)
(T/F) - GH stimulates production of insulin like growth factors (IGFs) by the liver, bone, muscle. True
GH (promotes / inhibits) protein synthesis and it encourages the use of fats for fuel, thus conserving (glucose / insulin). Promotes; glucose
(T/F) - GH is an anabolic hormone? True
GH direct action (promtes / inhibits) lipolysis in fat depots? Promotes
In the liver, GH cause _____ breakdown and the release of _____ into the blood. Glycogen; glucose
Hypersecretion of GH usually results from an (anterior/posterior) pituitary tumor? Anterior
What disorder is caused by GH hypersecretion in children because of the active growth plates? Gigantism
What is the disorder caused by GH hypersecretion once the growth plates have closed? Acromegaly
What is the disorder caused by hyposecretion of GH in children? Pituitary dwarfism
What is another name for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)? Thyrotropin
TSH is regulated by (positive/negative) feedback? Negative
What is another name for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)? Corticotropin
Where is TSH secreted from? Thyrotrophs in the anterior pituitary
Where is ACTH secreted from? Corticotrophs in the anterior pituitary
ACTH stimulates the _____ _____ to release _____. Adrenal cortex; corticosteroids
When is ACTH at its peak? Morning
ACTH is regulated by (positive/negative) feedback? Negative
Gonadotropins are produced by _____ and become active when _____? Gonadotrophs; puberty
What are the two hormones that are referred to as gonadotropins? Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH); Luteinizing hormone (LH)
In females, LH and FSH cause maturation of the _____ _____. Ovarian follicle
In females, LH triggers ovulation and promotes synthesis and release of _____ hormones. Ovarian
In males, LH stimulates the _____ cells of the testes to produce the horomone _____. Interstitial cells; testosterone
Prolactin (PRL) is produced by ______? Lactotrophs
In females, prolactin (PRL) stimulates ____________________? Milk production in the breasts
Prolactin (PRL) is a protein structurally similar to _____ hormone. Growth hormone
Prolactin (PRL) is inhibited by _____ _____ hormone, which is now known as dopamine? Prolactin inhibiting hormone
Prolactin (PRL) levels (rise/fall) toward the end of pregnancy? Rise
Which is more common, hypersecretion or hyposecretion of prolactin (PRL) Hypersecretion
Hypersecretion is the most frequent abnormality of _____ _____ tumors. Anterior pituitary
Clinical signs of hyperprolactinemia are inappropriate lactation, lack of menses, infertility in females, and impotence in males. No Answer, Informational Slide Only
The posterior pituitary is made of axons of _____ neurons and _____ cells. hypothalamic neurons; glial cells
ADH and oxytocin are produced by the _____? Hypothalamus
ADH and oxytocin are stored in the _____ _____ and are released in response to stimulation from the ______. Posterior pituitary; hypothalamus
Oxytocin stimulates _____ _____ during child birth. Uterine contraction
Oxytocin is regulated by (positive/negative) feedback? Positive
Oxytocin (triggers/stops) milk "let down" reflex in women? Triggers
(T/F) - Synthetic and natural oxytocin drugs are used to induce or hasten labor? True
ADH - antidiuretic hormone (increases/decreases) uring function? Decreases
What is osmolarity? The concentration of solute in a solution
ADH - antidiuretic hormone is regulated by _____ in the _____. Osmoreceptors; hypothalamus
With high solute concentration, ADH is _____? Released
When ADH is released, where is it sent to act? Kidney Tubules
At high concentrations ADH causes _____ (raises BP) which is also called _____? Vasoconstriction; vasopressin
One result of ADH deficiency is diabetes _____, a syndrome marked by the output of (large/small) amounts of urine? Insupidus; large
ADH deficiency is caused by _____ _____? Head injury
What does SIADH stand for? Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH
SIADH is (hyposecretion/hypersecretion) of ADH? hypersecretion
(T/F) - ADH hypersecretion is characterized by fluid retention and brain edema. True
Thyroid homrones contain what two iodine containing hormones? T4 - thyroxine; T3 - triiodothyronine
T4 contains _____ iodine atoms bound to _____ amino acids. Four; thyrosine
T3 contains _____ iodine atoms bound to _____ amino acids. Three; thyrosine
Which si the main hormone secreted (T3/T4) T4
Which hormone is more active (T3/T4) T3
(T/F) - Most T3 is formed at the target tissues by conversion of T4 to T3? True
The thyroid is the (biggest/smallest) endocrine gland in the body? Biggest
(T/F) - With a few exceptions, all cells of the body respond to thyroid hormones? True
T4 and T3 bind to transport proteins called _____ _____ (TBGs). Thyroxine-binding globulins
T3 and T4 receptors are located (inside/outside) the cell on DNA. They act by turning on _____. Inside; genes
(Central/peripheral) tissues convert T4 to T3? Peripheral
T4 and T3 are regulated by (positive/negative) feedback? Negative
Thyroid hormones are necessary for _____ and _____ growth and development in children. Mental; sexual
Thyroid hormones cause (increased/decreased) metabolism and heat production? Increased
Thyroid hormones cause (increased/decreased) breakdown of lipids? Increased
Thyroid hormones cardiovascular effects - the deliver (more/less) oxygen, (increase/decrease) blood volume, cardiac output, heart rate, and vasodilation? More; increased
Thyroid hormone GI effects - (increased/decreased) motility and appetite? Increased
In adults, full blown hypothyroid syndrome is call _____? Myxedema
Myxedema causes (high/low) metabolic rate, cold intolerance, mental sluggishness? Low
Myxedema results in (excess/lack) of iodine, the thyroid gland enlarges and protrudes and is called _____ _____? Lack; endemic goiter
Severe hypothyroidism in infants is called _____? Cretinism
(T/F) - Children with cretinism are mentally retarded, short, disproportionately sized body and a thick tongue and neck? True
Cretinism may be caused by genetic (sufficiency/deficiency) of the fetal thyroid gland or maternal factors such as lack of dietary _____? Deficiency; iodine
The most common hyperthyroid pathology disease is called ____ ____? Graves disease
(T/F) - Graves disease is not an autoimmune disease? False - It is an autoimmune disease
Signs and symptoms of Graves disease include (increased/decreased) metabolism and weight loss despite (increased/decreased) appetite, sweating, heart palpitations, anxiety, tremors, and exophthalmos (bulging eyes)? Increased; Increased
_____ hormone is produced by the parafollicular or C cells of the thyroid? Calcitonin
Calcitonin (raised/lowers) blood calcium mainly in children? Lowers
Calcitonin (prohibits/inhibitis) osteoclast activity? Inhibits
Calcitonin is stimulated by increase in _____ ion concentration in the blood, which is (positive/negative) feedback? Calcium; negative
Parathyroid glands are tiny glands embedded in the (anterior/posterior) aspect of the thyroid? Posterior
(T/F) - PTH (parathormone) is the least important hormone that regulates blood calcium? False; it is the most important
Low blood Ca levels stimulate _____ release? PTH (parathormone)
Rising Ca levels in the blood inhibit _____ release - _____ feedback? PTH; negative
Adrenal glands are paired organs located where? On the top of the kidneys
Structurally and functionally the adrenal glands are what two glands? Adrenal medulla; adrenal cortex
The adrenal cortex synthesizes and releases steriod hormones called _____? Corticosteroids
The adrenal cortex is divided into how many layers? Three
What is the outermost layer of the adrenal cortex and what corticosteroid is produced there? Zona glomerulosa; mineralcorticoids mainly aldosterone
What is the middle layer of the adrenal cortex and what corticosteroid is produced there? Zona fasciculata; glucocorticoids mainly cortisol
What is the inner layer of the adrenal cortex and what corticosteroid is produced there? Zona reticularis; gonadocorticoids mainly androgens
Mineralocorticoids regulate mainly what two electrolytes in the extracellular fluids? Na+; K+
_____ is the most important mineralocorticoid? Aldosterone
Aldosterone maintains Na+ balance by (increasing/decreasing) excretion of sodium from the body? Decreasing
Aldosterone stimulates reabsorption of Na+ by the _____ _____? Kidney tubules
Aldosterone (increases/decreases) K+ excretion? Increases
Aldosterone secretion is stimulated by (increasing/decreasing) blood volume and blood pressure and (rising/falling) blood levels of K+ Increasing; rising
The renin-angiotension mechanism- _____ release renin cleaves angiotensinogen to angiotensin I, which is converted to angiotensin II in the _____ that in turn stimulates _____ release from the adrenal cortex in the blood stream. Kidneys; lungs; aldosterone
ACTH cause small (increases/decreases) of aldosterone during stress? Increases
Glucorticoids (cortisol) is mainly produced in what layer of the adrenal cortex? Z. fasciculata
Glucocorticoids (cortisol) is regulated by (positive/negative) feedback and is at its peak in the early (morning/evening)? Negative; morning
The metabolic effects of glucocorticoids (cortisol) - stimulates ______ (formation of glucose from non carbohydrates) by the liver, breakdown of _____, mobilization of _____ _____. Gluconeogenesis; proteins; fatty acids
(Excessive/insufficient) levels of glucocorticoids (cortisol) depress bone formation, inhibit inflammation, depress the immune system. Excessive
What is the name of the disease caused by excess glucocorticoids? Cushing's syndrome
What is the most common cause of Cushing's syndrome? Latrogenic - long term treatment with glucocorticoids as medicines
Cushing's syndrome can be caused by tumors located where? (3 places) ACTH producing tumor; ectopic ACTH tumor from cancel; adrenal tumor
Cushing's syndrome causes (hypo/hyper glycemia)? Hyperglycemia
What does Cushing's do to the muscles and bones? Muscle weakness and wasting, osteoporosis
Cushing's causes (hypo/hyper tension) which causes _____? Hypertension; edema
How do people with Cushing's look? Moon face, buffalo hump, central obesity
_____ ______ is the major hyposecretory disorder of the adrenal cortex, usually involves deficits in both clucocorticoids and mineralcorticoids. Addison's disease
People with Addison's tend to (lose/gain) weight, their plasma glucose and sodium levels (rise/fall), and potassium levels (rise/fall). Lose; fall; rise
People with Addison's will be (hypo/hyper-tensive) and (hypo/hyper-glycemic)? Hypotensive; hypoglycemic
The adrenal medulla secretes what two hormones? Epinephrine; norepinephrine
Secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine stimulate the sympathetic "fight or flight" response which cause blood glucose levels to (rise/fall), blood vessels to (costrict/dilate), blood to be diverted (to/from) the major organs, heart rate to (rise/fall Rise; constrict; to; rise
(T/F) - The pancrease has both endocrine and exocrine cells? True
_____ cells produce and enzyme - rich juice used for digestion. Acinar
Pancreatic islets are called what? Islets of Langerhans
What are the two major cell types contained in the islets of Langerhans? Alpha, Beta cells
What do alpha cells produce? Glucagon
What do beta cells produce Insulin
Glucagon secretion is mainly stimulated by (rise/fall) in blood glucose levels? Fall
What is glucagon's major target organ? Liver
What is glycogenolysis? The breakdown of glycogen to glucose
What is gluconeogensis? Synthesis of glucose from non carbohydrates.
_____ is synthesized by pancreatic beta cells? Insulin
Insulin is an (anabolic/catabolic) hormone? Anabolic
_____ is caused by autoimmone destruction of beta cells - deficiency of insulin? Type I DM
_____ is caused by resistance of peripheral tissues to insulin and inadequate insulin secretion? Type II DM
Created by: kmking



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