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Pharm Exam I MC

Prof: Fabick

Pharmacokinetics study of drug moevement throughout the body
diffusion or passive transport molecules move from higher to lower concentration & are usually small nonionized or lipid-soluble
active transport chemicals move against concentration or electrochemical gradient & usually large ioniezed or water-soluble molecules
cotransport movement of 2 or more chemicals across the membrane
absorption movement from site of administration across body membranes to circulating fluids
affinity attraction
drug-protein complexes binding reversibly to plasma proteins & never reaching target cell
blood-brain & fetal-placenta barriers are special anatomic barriers that prevent many chemicals & medications from entering
biotransformation or metabolism is how the drug is used by teh body & also changes it so that it can be excreted
conjugates side chains that makes drugs more water soluble & more easily excreted by the kidneys
prodrugs have no pharmacologic activity unless 1st metabolized to active form by the body
enzyme induction a drug increases metabolic activity in the liver
1st-pass effect oral drugs that enter hepatic-portal circulation
pharmacodynamics how medicine changes the body
frequency-distribution curve graphical representation of number of clients responding to drugs at different doses
median effective dose middle of frequency-distribution curve that produces therapeutic response in 50% of a group also known as average or standard dose
ED50 median effective dose
LD50 median lethal dose
median lethal dose used to assess safety of a drug & is lethal dose in 50% of group of animals
therapeutic index measure of a drug's safety margin. the higher the value the safer the drug
calculating therapeutic index median LD50 divided by median ED50
median toxicity dose dose that will produce given toxicity in 50% of group of clients
TD50 median toxic dose
graded-dose responses graphically visualizes differences in responses to medications in a single patient
phase 1 occurs at lowest dose & few target cells affected by drug
phase 2 linear relationship & most desirable range
phase 3 plateau reached therefore increasing dose has no therapeutic effect & increased dose may produce adverse effects
potency produces a therapeutic effect at a lower dose compared with another drug in the same class
efficacy magnitude of maximal response that can be produced from a particular drug
which is more important potency or efficacy? efficacy
nonspecific cellular response caused by drugs that act independently of receptors
angonists produce greater maximal response, produce same response as endogenous substance & bind to receptor
partial antagonists bind to receptor & produce a weaker response than agonist
antagonists occupy receptors & prevent endogenous chemical from acting often compete with agonist for receptors
functional antagonists inhibit the effects of an agonist not by competing for a receptor but by changing pharmacokinetic factors
idiosyncratic responses unpredictable & unexplained drug reactions
pharmacogenetics are of pharmacology that examines the role of heredity in drug response
Created by: midnight1854