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AP Psych Unit 1

Independent variable? The variable that you are testing on the experimental group. It's variance does not depend on anything.
Dependent Variable? The variable that depends on the independent variable
Random sample a sample in which every element in the population has an equal chance of being selected.
Random assignment Random assignment or random placement is an experimental technique for assigning subjects to different treatments
Placebo A substance that has no therapeutic effect, used as a control in testing new drugs.
Single-blind an experiment in which the person collecting data knows whether the subject is in the control group or the experimental group, but subjects do not.
Double-blind experimenter and experimented both do not know whether subject is in the control or experimental group.
Control Group To serve as a comparison to the experimental group
Experimental group Group that is being tested on
Mean add all numbers up then divide by the number of numbers
Mode how frequent a number is present within a set of numbers. (the most commonly present number is the mode)
Median Line numbers up from least to greatest. The number in the very center of the line of numbers is the median.
Normal Distribution 1.A function that represents the distribution of many random variables as a symmetrical bell-shaped graph
Standard Deviation A quantity calculated to indicate the extent of deviation for a group as a whole.
Statistical Significance a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance.
p value The p (probability) value is a calculation used in studies to determine if the results are caused by chance or not. The lower the p-value, the more likely it is that the difference between groups was caused by treatment.
Positive Corrolation where an increase in one data set produces an increase in the other.
Negative Corrolation A correlation where as one variable increases, the other decreases
Correlation Coefficient (r value) statistic representing how closely two variables co-vary; it can vary from -1 (perfect negative correlation) through 0 (no correlation) to +1 (perfect positive correlation)
z score A statistical measure that quantifies the distance (measured in standard deviations) a data point is from the mean of a data set. example: if data has a z score of +2.5 then it is +2.5 standard deviations away from the mean.
Variance range or data- gap between lowest and highest score
Randomness A method of sampling where subjects are chosen by chance.
What are the APA's 4 rules of ethics? 1. No harm 2. Confidentiality 3. Inform consent 4. If deciet is necessary, debrief
Case study Study one or more individuals in great depth in the hope of revealing things tru to us all
Survey used in both descriptive and correlational studies. looks at cases in less depth.
Naturalistic Observation watching and recording behavior of organism in their natural environment
Experiment Random assignment to groups--> cause and effect
Edward Thorndike conducted the first experiment on animal learning.
Wilhelm Wundt established the first psychology laboratory
G. Stanley Hall established America's first psychology lab (at Johns Hopkins)
William James published Principles of Psychology, the first widely used psychology textbook.
Mary Whiton Calkins First female presdient of the American Psychological Association
Margaret Floyd Washburn First women to recieve a Ph.D in psychology .
Hindsight bias belief that you would have foreseen an outcome
Overconfidence we are overconfident. Except when 1. you are about to be judged 2. You are depressed - you tend to be realistic
Wording effect Words can alter how people respond to questions(anchoring- providing an artifact(false) answer to alter response
False consensus the false consensus effect is a cognitive bias whereby a person tends to overestimate the degree of agreement that others have with them.
Illusory Correlation perceiving a relationship between variables where none exists.
Confounding Variable An unforeseen, and unaccounted-for variable that jeopardizes reliability and validity of an experiment's outcome.
Created by: 1212726254