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# AP Psych Unit 1

Question | Answer |
---|---|

Independent variable? | The variable that you are testing on the experimental group. It's variance does not depend on anything. |

Dependent Variable? | The variable that depends on the independent variable |

Random sample | a sample in which every element in the population has an equal chance of being selected. |

Random assignment | Random assignment or random placement is an experimental technique for assigning subjects to different treatments |

Placebo | A substance that has no therapeutic effect, used as a control in testing new drugs. |

Single-blind | an experiment in which the person collecting data knows whether the subject is in the control group or the experimental group, but subjects do not. |

Double-blind | experimenter and experimented both do not know whether subject is in the control or experimental group. |

Control Group | To serve as a comparison to the experimental group |

Experimental group | Group that is being tested on |

Mean | add all numbers up then divide by the number of numbers |

Mode | how frequent a number is present within a set of numbers. (the most commonly present number is the mode) |

Median | Line numbers up from least to greatest. The number in the very center of the line of numbers is the median. |

Normal Distribution | 1.A function that represents the distribution of many random variables as a symmetrical bell-shaped graph |

Standard Deviation | A quantity calculated to indicate the extent of deviation for a group as a whole. |

Statistical Significance | a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance. |

p value | The p (probability) value is a calculation used in studies to determine if the results are caused by chance or not. The lower the p-value, the more likely it is that the difference between groups was caused by treatment. |

Positive Corrolation | where an increase in one data set produces an increase in the other. |

Negative Corrolation | A correlation where as one variable increases, the other decreases |

Correlation Coefficient (r value) | statistic representing how closely two variables co-vary; it can vary from -1 (perfect negative correlation) through 0 (no correlation) to +1 (perfect positive correlation) |

z score | A statistical measure that quantifies the distance (measured in standard deviations) a data point is from the mean of a data set. example: if data has a z score of +2.5 then it is +2.5 standard deviations away from the mean. |

Variance | range or data- gap between lowest and highest score |

Randomness | A method of sampling where subjects are chosen by chance. |

What are the APA's 4 rules of ethics? | 1. No harm 2. Confidentiality 3. Inform consent 4. If deciet is necessary, debrief |

Case study | Study one or more individuals in great depth in the hope of revealing things tru to us all |

Survey | used in both descriptive and correlational studies. looks at cases in less depth. |

Naturalistic Observation | watching and recording behavior of organism in their natural environment |

Experiment | Random assignment to groups--> cause and effect |

Edward Thorndike | conducted the first experiment on animal learning. |

Wilhelm Wundt | established the first psychology laboratory |

G. Stanley Hall | established America's first psychology lab (at Johns Hopkins) |

William James | published Principles of Psychology, the first widely used psychology textbook. |

Mary Whiton Calkins | First female presdient of the American Psychological Association |

Margaret Floyd Washburn | First women to recieve a Ph.D in psychology . |

Hindsight bias | belief that you would have foreseen an outcome |

Overconfidence | we are overconfident. Except when 1. you are about to be judged 2. You are depressed - you tend to be realistic |

Wording effect | Words can alter how people respond to questions(anchoring- providing an artifact(false) answer to alter response |

False consensus | the false consensus effect is a cognitive bias whereby a person tends to overestimate the degree of agreement that others have with them. |

Illusory Correlation | perceiving a relationship between variables where none exists. |

Confounding Variable | An unforeseen, and unaccounted-for variable that jeopardizes reliability and validity of an experiment's outcome. |

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