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Personality Develop

Mental Health

QuestionAnswer
Personality Traits Enduring patterns of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and oneself that are exhibited in a wide range of social and personal contexts
Temperament The inborn personality characteristics that influence an individuals manner of reacting to the environment, and ultimately his or her developmental progression
Personality Disorders Personality traits are inflexible and maladaptive, causing either significant functional impairment or subjective distress
Personality The combination of character, behavioral, temperamental, emotional, and mental traits that are unique to each specific individual
Father of psychiatry Sigmund Freud
Id Locus of instinctual drives the "pleasure principle". Present at birth, it endows the infant with instinctual drives that seek to satisfy needs and achieve immediate gratification. Id-driven behaviors are impulsive and may be irrational
Ego Rational self or the "reality principle", begins to develop between the ages of 4-6 months. Mediator, it maintains harmony among the external world, the id, and the superego
Superego "perfection principle", develops between 3-6 years internalizes the values and morals set forth by primary caregivers. Derived out of a system of rewards and punishments. Assists the ego in control of id impulses
Ego-ideal When a child is consistently rewarded for "good" behavior, the self-esteem is enhanced, and the behavior becomes part of the ego-ideal, that is, it is, internalized as part of his or her value system
Conscience Formed when the child is punished consistently for "bad" behavior. The child learns what is considered morally right or wrong from feedback received from parental figures and from society or culture
conscious all memories that remain within an individual's awareness. Events and experiences that are easily remembered or retrieved are considered to be within one's conscious awareness
Preconscious All memories that may have been forgotten or are not in present awareness but with attention can be readily recalled into consciousness
Unconscious All memories that one is unable to bring to conscious awareness. Consists of unpleasent or nonessential memories that have been repressed and can be retreived only through therapy or hypnosis.
Libido Psychic energy. The drive to fulfill basic physiological needs such as hunger, thirst, and sex)
Cathexis The process by which the id invests energy into an object in an attempt to achieve gratification. Ex: instinctively turing to alochol to relieve stress
Anticathexis The use of psychic energy by the ego and the superego to control id impulses. Ex: the ego would attempt to control the use of alcohol with rational thinking, such as, "I already have ulcers from drinking too much"
Freud- Oral Stage Birth to 18 months. Relief from anxiety through oral gratification
Freud- Anal Stage 18 months to 3 years. Learning independence and control, with focus on the excretory function
Freud- Phallic 3 years to 6 years. Identification with parent of same gender; development of sexual identity; focus on genital organs
Freud- Latency 6 years to 12 years. Sexuality repressed; focus on relationships with same gender peers
Freud- Genital 13 years to 20 years. Libido reawakened as genital organs mature; focus on relationships with members of the opposite sex
Sullivan- Infancy Birth-18 months. Relief from anxiety through oral gratification of needs
Sullivan- Childhood 18 months-6 years. Learning to experience a delay in personal gratification without undue anxiety
Sullivan- Juvenile Learning to form satisfactory peer relationships
Sullivan- Preadolescence 9-12 years. Learning to form satisfactory relationships with persons of the opposite gender; developing a sense of identity.
Sullivan- Late adolescence 14-21 years. Establishing self-dignity; experiencing satisfying relationships; working to develop a lasting, intimate relationship with opposite gender
Erikson- Trust vs. Mistrust Birth-18 months. To develop a basic trust in the mothering figure and learn to generalize it to others
Erikson- Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt 18 months-3 years. To gain some self-control and independence within the environment
Eriskon- Initiative vs. Guilt 3 to 6 years. To develop a sense of purpose and the ability to initiate and direct own activities
Erikson- Industry vs. Infeiority 6 to 12 years. To achieve a sense of self-confidence by learning, competing, performing successfully, and recieving recognition from significant others, peers, and acquaintances
Erikson- Identity vs. Role confusion 12-20 years. To integrate the tasks mastered in the pervius stages into a secure sense of self
Erikson- Intimacy vs. Isolation 20 to 30 years. To form an intense, lasting relationship, or a commitment to another person, cause, institution, or creative effort
Erikson- Generativity vs. Stagnation 30-65 years. To achieve the life goals established for onseself, while also considering the welfare of the future generation
Erikson- Ego integrity vs. Despair 65 years to death. To review one's life and drive meaning from both positive and negative events, while achieving a positive sense of self-worth
Mahler- Normal autism Birth-1 month. Fulfillment of basic needs for survial and comfort
Mahler- Symbiosis 1-5 months. Development of awareness of external source of need fulfillment
Mahler- Speration-individuation "Psychlogical birth" of the child. Seperation is defined as the physical and psychological attainment of a sense of personal distinction from the mothering figure.
Mahler subphase I- Differentation 5-10 months. Begins with the child's initial physical movements away from the mothering figure
Mahler subphase II- Practicing 10-16 months. With adavanced locomotor functioning the child experiences feelings of exhilaration from increased independence.
Mahler subphase III- Rapprochement 16-24 months. Extremely critical to the childs healthy ego. The child becomes increasingly aware of his or her separeteness from the mothering figure, while the sense of fearlessness and omnipotence diminishes
Mahler subphase IV- Consolidation 24-36 months. A degree of object constancy is established as the child is able to internalize a sustanied image of the mothering figure as enduring and loving, while maintaining the perception of her as a seperate person in the outside world.
Father of psychology Jean Piaget.
Cognitive development in children based on the premise that human intelligence is an extension of biological adaptation, or one's ability to adapt psychologically to the environment.
Piaget- Sensorimotor Birth to 2 years. With increased mobility and awareness, development of a sense of self as seperate from the external environment; the concept of object permanence emerges as the ability to form mental images evolves.
Object permanence The notion that an object will continue to exist when it is no longer present to the senses-is initiated.
Piaget- Preoperational 2 to 6 years. Learning to express self with language; development of understanding of symbolic gestures; achievement of object permanence.
Piaget- Concrete operations 6 to 12 years. Learning to apply logic to thinking; development of understanding of reversibility and spatiality; learning to differentiate and classify; increased socialization and application of rules.
Piaget- Formal operations 12 to 15+ years. Learning to think and reason in abstract terms; making and testing hypotheses; capability of logical thinking and reasoning expand and are refined; cognitive maturity achieved.
Kohlberg- Preconvential level (4-10yrs) 1. Punishment and obedience orientation. Behavior motivated by fear of punishment. 2. Instrumental relativist orientation. Behavior motivated by egocentrism and concern for self.
Kohlberg- Conventional level (10-13yrs) Interpersonal concordance orientation. Behavior motivated by expectations of others; strong desire for approval and acceptance. Law and order orientation. Behavior motivated by respect for authority.
Kohlberg- Postconvential level (adolescence on) Social contract legalistic orientation. Behavior motivated by respect for universal laws and moral principles; guided by internal set of values. Universal ethical principle orientation. Behavior motivated by internalized principles of honor, justice..
Roles sets of values and behaviors that are specific to functional positions within social structures.
Resource person provides specific, needed information that helps the client understand his or her problem and the new situation.
Counselor Listens as the client reviews feelings related to difficulties he or she is experiencing in any aspect of "life".
Teacher Identifies learning needs and provides information to the client or family that may aid in improvement of the life situation.
Leader Directs the nurse-client interaction and ensures that appropriate actions are undertaken to facilitate achievement of the designated goals.
Technical expert Understands various professional devices and posseses the clinical skills necessary to perform the interventions that are in the best interest of the client.
Surrogate Serves as a substitute figure for another.
Peplau- Infancy Learning to count on others. Learning to communicate in various ways with the primary caregiver in order to have comfort needs fulfilled.
Peplau- Toddlerhood Learning to delay satisfaction. Learning the satisfaction of pleasing others by delaying self-gratification in small ways.
Peplau- Early childhood Identifying oneself. Learing apporiate roles and behaviors by acquiring the ability to perceive the expectations of others.
Peplau- Late childhood Developing skills in participation. Learning the skills of compromise, competition, and cooperation with others; establishment of a more realistic view of the world and a feeling of one's place in it.
Created by: asau