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Are meso compounds chiral or achiral Achiral
Where does post-transcriptional mRNA processing occur The nucleus
What is the spermatogonium called after DNA replication The primary spermatocyte
How many chromatids and chromosomes does the primary spermatocyte have THe primary spermatocyte contains 92 chromatids but only 46 chromosomes
In a reaction at equilibrium, do the forward and reverse rate constants have to be equal No
What is a virion The inert form of a virus that exists outside of the host cell
What is a prophage A virus incorporated into the host cell's DNA
Yeast are 1)prok. or euk. 2)unicellular or multicellular and 3) facultative anaerobes or obligate anaerobes Euk, unicellular, facultative anaerobes
What is the difference between constitutional and structural isomers They are the same
Do diastereomers have different physical properties Yes
Which is the kinetically favored product The product with the lower Ea
In NMR, which exhibits a peak further downfield: an aldehyde or ketone Aldehyde
If you add LAH to a beta-hydroxy CA, what happens It becomes a 1,3-diol since LAH doesn't reduce OH to carbon
Which is more reactive, an amide or an ester, and why An ester because the alkoxide ion is better leaving group that the NH2-
Sweating is an autonomic response. Which division controls this Both
Are proteins synthesized on the rER, sEr, or both rER
How does ACh act on the heart Ach binds to muscarinic receptors, allowing K+ efflux and hyperpolarizing the cells, decreasing HR
What effect does progesterone have on the uterus Progesterone prepares the uterus for pregnancy and prevents the loss of the uterine wall
What type of oocyte does the primary follcle contain, and is it haploid or diploid The primary oocyte, and it is diploid
At birth until puberty, what phase are the primary oocytes arrested in Prophase I
Where do women produce some testosterone from The adrenal cortex
When does vapor pressure deviate negatively from Raoult's law When enthaply change is negative (think that stronger bonds are formed)
What is the hematocrit level The % by volume of RBCs in blood
How are speed of sound and density of medium related Inversely proportional
What does humoral (B-cell) immunity act against Exogenous antigens
Where are proteins for secretion produced rER
Each concentric layer of bone formed by osteoblasts in an osteon is called a Lamella
What does parathyroid hormone do Increases blood calcium by stimulating osteoclasts
What is the exception to the law of independent assortment Genes on the same chromosome
An increase in s character has what effect on electronegativity and orbital energy Increases electronegativity and lowers the energy of the orbital
The cell potential in a galvanic cell equals the difference in cell potential between the cathode and the anode when written as reductions
What is the equation that relates free energy change and the equilibrium constant (K) ^G=-RTlnK
What does Benedict's test do It turns from blue to red in the presence of a reducing sugar (acetal or hemiacetal)
In electrophoresis, what are the charges on the cathode and anode The cathode is negative and the anode is positive
In a simple AA, how can you calculate the isoelectric point from the two pKas Average them
In an acidic AA, how can you calculate the isoelectric point Average the pKa of the COOH and of the R group
How do RBS derive their energy Through glycolysis
What is derived from the ectoderm The nervous system, eye lens, inner ear, epidermis, adrenal medulla
What is derived from the mesoderm Muscle, kidneys, heart, ducts of the reproductive tract
What is derived from the endoderm Epithelial and respiratory lining, lungs, stomach
What is induction A group of cells causes differentiation of another group of cells
What does the spleen contain B and T lymphocytes, venus sinuses, and RBCs (it removes beat up RBCs from the circulation with its small vessles)
What does the foramen ovale connect The right to the left atrium
What does the ductus arterious connect The pulmonary artery to the aorta
What part of the circulatory system contains the most vascular smooth muscle The arteries
What does the ductus venosus connect The umbilical vein and the inferior vena cava, bypassing the liver
When does estrogen peak Just prior to ovulation, which stimulates LH and FSH secretion.
After ovulation and during pregnancy, what effect does increased estrogen and progesterone have on LH and FSH They inhibit LH and FSH at this point
What happens in the presence of SRY The testes produce testosterone, which promotes development of the Wolffian duct into the male reproductive tract
Besides SRY, what signals male over female development MIS, which inhibits Mullerian duct growth into the female reproductive tract
What does menstruation occur in response to A sudden drop in progesterone and estrogen
What is nondisjunction Failure of homologous chromosomes in meiosis I or sister chromatids in meiosis II to separate
What equation relates free energy and the electric potential of a cell ^g=-nFE, so increasing the number of moles of electrons or the voltage decreases delta G, increasing spontaneity
Relate spermatogonia, spermatocytes 1' and 2', and spermatids Spermatogonia (diploid) undergo mitosis to form spermatocytes(1', diploid), which undergo meiosis I to form 2' spermatocytes(haploid), which undergo meiosis II to form haploid spermatids, which mature into haploid sperm
Relate oocyte 1' and 2', polar body, and ovum A 1' oocyte (diploid) undergoes meiosis I to form two haploid cells: a 2' oocyte and a polar body. The 2' oocyte undergoes meiosis II to form 2 more haploid cells: an ovum and a second polar body
What are the tyrosine-derivative catecholamines and what are they released by NE and E, released by the chromaffin skins of the adrenal medulla
What's the stronger acid: alcohol or phenol Phenol, but it is still a weak acid
What does the pancreas secrete as an endocrine gland insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin, which inhibits release of both insulin and glucagon
What is a decomposition reaction A single reactant is broken down into several components
Is a neutron affected by electric field, magnetic field, both, or neither Neither
How does the K(m) change in competitive and noncompetitive inhibition Increases; remains constant
What is allopatric speciation It is speciation due to geographical separation
What does NABH4 reduce Carbonyls to alcohols, but not CAs or esters
What does the pancreas release as an exocrine gland Trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase, amylase, and lipase
What activates typsinogen, and what is secreted by Enterokinase, and it is secreted by the small intestine
What are epimers Sugars that differ in configuration about a single stereocenters (anomers are a special type of epimer)
How do you calculate the ^H(sublimation) ^H(melting) + ^H(vaporization)
What is a transition mutation A for G, G for A, C for T, T for C (purine for purine, pyrimdine for pyrimidine)
What is a transversion mutation A purine is substituted for a pyrimidine, or vice versa
What is a nonsense mutation A short protein is produced because of a premature stop codon
What is a missense mutation An incorrect AA sequence leads to a protein with inhibited function
How many chromosomes are there in meiosis I 46, each with two copies of the DNA
What IR band do alkynes produce 2200 cm^-1
What IR band do amines produce A sharp band between 3100 and 3500 cm^-1
What are fungal spores (when are they formed, haploid or diploid, activity) They are formed in harsh conditions, haploid, and metabolically inactive
What are G0, G1, S, and G2 phases G0 is a nondividing phase, G1 is an intense growth phase with a checkpoint at the end, S phase is the point at which Dna replication occurs, and G2 is a growth phase in which the cell continues to grow until mitosis commences
How many molecules are there in a mole 6X10^23
What IR band to alkenes produce 1600 cm^-1
Is air resistance dependent on the mass of an object No
What is the gravitational force anywhere inside a uniformly dense sphere/ring due to that sphere/ring 0
What type of friction does a ball rolling down a hill experience Static friction
Electrons flow from _ to _ potential, and current flows from _ to _ potential low, high; high, low
In the follicular phase, what does GnRH do It increases LH and FSH, which causes follicle maturation and increases estrogen, which further increases LH
In the luteal phase, what do LH and FSH do LH and FSH cause formation of the c.l. from the ruptured follicle
What does the c.l. produce Estrogen and progesterone, which promotes building of the endometrial lining. The estrogen and progesterone spike also decreases GnRH, which decreases LH and FSH, which cause c.l. destruction unless fertilized
What happens to GnRH when the c.l. is destroyed GnRH increases so the cycle can start again
What is the average kinetic energy of a gas particle 3/2KT
Where does gas exchange occur between the maternal and fetal blood At the chorionic villi from the placenta
What is an imine A carbon double bound to a nitrogen C=N
What is an enamine A carbon carbon double bond with an adjacent nitrogen C=C-N
What is an imide O=C-N-C=O
The fraction of the volume of an object that is submerged is given by The specific density
When is ester hydrolysis reversible: Acidic, basic, both, or neither Acidic conditions only
Where are lymphocytes produces and B-cells trained to produce antibodies Bone marrow
Where do killer T cells mature The thymus
What is the rate expression k[reactants]^x, doesn't include products
In an electrolytic cell, the anode is _ and the cathode is _ positive, negative
When the c.l. atrophies, what decreases estrogen and progesterone
The lower the pKb, the _ the base stronger, so the Kb will be larger. The same applies to pKa and Ka
If heat is supplied to a constant volume gas, what work does the gas do None, since the volume doesn't change. This includes not doing negative work from taking in the heat
What is a disproportionation reaction A redox reaction in which atoms of an element are both oxidized and reduced
If a car turns while skidding, what type of friction provides the centripetal force Static friction
Is the angle of diffraction dependent on the wavelength of light No
What does the magnetic quantum number determine The shape of the e- cloud/ orbital behavior
What are the four main colligative properties vapor pressure, melting point, boiling point, and osmotic pressure
What enzyme do prokaryotes use to supercoil their DNA DNA gyrase
What has happened and what will happen during spermatogenesis Spermatids have already undergone their meiosis, but are not yet fully matured
Ova are frozen in what stage until after fertilization Meiosis II
When does recombination occur in both oogenesis and spermatogenesis Prophase I
Are triglycerides components of the plasma membrane No
What does AlBr3 do to Br2, and what reaction does this activate it for AlBr3 increases the electrophilicy (makes it more positive) of Br2, polarizing it for electrophilic aromatic substitution
What is the only way to change a reaction's equilibrium constant Change the temperature. Changes in []s don't change the Keq
What is fibrinogen and what is it produced by A clotting factor precursor produced by the liver
What induces ovulation An LH surge
What happens in mitotic prophase Spindle fibers are formed, the nuclear envelope breaks down, and chromosomes condense (No recombination, that is only in meiotic prophase)
Diluting a buffer with waterdoes what to pH Nothing
Nucleophilicy of the halogen ions in a polar protic solvent increases going _ the group Down, since large ions are less tightly solvated
When do all of the mitotic divisions of the oogonia that lead to primary oocyte formation occur Between fertilization and birth
A diploid nondividing cell will be in which phase G0 or G1
Do bacteria contain an electron transport chain Yes, on the plasma membrane that makes ATP via ATP synthase
When does the ovum complete meiosis II, forming and releasing a second polar body Following sperm fertilization. Then the zygote divides. Implantation occurs a few days later, and gastrulation occurs after that
Resistance of a wire _ with increased temperature and with increased cross-sectional area Increases, decreases
Where is trypsin secreted From the pancreas into the duodenum
Microtubules originate and radiate from _ The centrosome
What can be said of HF's acidicity, bond energy, and bond length Weak acid, high bond energy, short bond length
Does RNA polymerase require a primer? Does it have exonuclease activity? What direction does it travel It travels 3' to 5' on the DNA strand, doesn't require a primer, and lacks exonuclease activity
Euks have _ DNA polymerases and _ RNA polymerases 1, 3
Proks have _ DNA polymerases and _ RNA polymerases 3, 1
Do proks have the 5' cap on their mRNA No, they instead have the SHine-Dalgarno sequence. They also lack a poly A tail
Reducing _ or _ at constant volume decreases the rate of effusion P or T
Which bacteria have no external membrane or capsule, but a very thick cell wall Gram +
What is transformation The ability of bacteria to take up naked DNA from culture
What is transduction The transfer of bacterial genes between cells via a virus
What is conjugation Sexual reproduction via a plasmid F factor forming a sex pilus
Ioniziation energy increases which ways on the table With electronegativity, up and to the right
How can you form an anhydride from a carboxylate anion Acidify then heat
What is the coleom, and where does it form in vertebrates The body cavity, and it forms as pouches in the mesoderm
Light microscropes can see up to 200 nm, so they can see proks and euks but not viruses
Does sound travel faster in air or water Water
What is the equation for the potential energy of a capacitor 1/2CV^2
What is the standard notation for an electrochemical cell Anode|Anode ion||Cathode ion|Cathode
Does light travel faster in air or in glass? What about sound Air; glass
What does Ph3P=R do In the Wittig reaction, it converts a C=O to a C=R
What ' of ROH reacts most rapidly with HCl 3'
What organelle produces protein antibodies to be shipped out of the cell rER
When in the centromere split in mitosis? In meiosis? In mitosis, during anaphase to pull the two sister chromatids apart. In meiosis, anaphase II to separate the sister chromatids after the homologous chromosomes were pulled apart in meiosis I
Are shorter or longer wavelengths more affected by dispersion? Shorter
Are rapid processes adiabatic Yes
What is diffracted more, red or blue light Red since longer wavelengths are more greatly diffracted
What bends more at an interface, red or violet light Violet light, since longer wavelengths travel faster through the interface so they have less time to be bent.
What happens when an object is placed at the focal point of a lens? The image distance is infinite
Created by: yankeefan13267