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Advanced Respiratory: Oxygenation/Ventilation

ICU patients are very ill and that's why there're in the ICU Sedated... In a severe amount of pain. Changed LOC. Respirator and Cardiac status are compromised
Although we have technology Assess the patient-identify what's happening with them and implement if needed
Be prepared-What can potentially go wrong Assess-know patient's history and what can I anticipate, be on the lookout for Expect more serious things can happen with these patients
With a higher acuity patient Anything can happen at any minute
If an alarm goes off or a number looks abnormal First assess the patient Look before you intervene-adding oxygen or repositioning Look at history, why they're there and how they look What do I need to do right now to take care of this patient
If a patient looks like they are having difficulty breathing Oxygen therapy Reposition - move up in bed if slumped Cough/deep breath suction Medications- look at standing orders or current orders
Social history Smoking-how long? Smokers tend to do much worse d/t damage to lungs and mucosa, don't have as good responses, especially older smokers Young smokers in traumas harder to manage
Cardiopulmonary history Do they have an underlying heart failure Taxing causes ↑ HR and exacerbation of HF symptoms, perfusion
Elimination history Listen for crackles, assess urine output,
Sleep/Rest history Some people have issues lying down Be aware of things like orthopnea , obstructive apnea
Dyspnea assessment At rest or upon exertion? Postop pts can have dyspnea upon exertion-are they tolerating it? Sats still ok?
Chest pain assessment Commonly ask-could have obstacles to communication ie lines, tubes
Cough / Sputum assessment listen to cough, productive?, thick?, wheezy sounding? how does sputum look
Voice changes assessment More hoarse, dry sounding with distress
Fatigue assessment Overwhelming tiredness even when person is resting Could be another issue
Nursing Assessment Past Disease processes (past and current) Flu season? Immunizations current? Environmental exposures/Behaviors (past and current) Medical/surgical hospitalizations
cardinal s/sx of respiratory distress Hypoxia Restlessness Diaphoresis Tachycardia Cool skin
S/SX if cardiac involvement of respiratory distress Dyspnea, wheezing, cough, sputum, palpitations, swollen feet Don't rely on monitor-s/sx can be masked ie., tachycardia masked by beta blockers Fatigue Chest pain Anxiety-anxiety is big Dizziness Bradycardia
Key Factors that cause hypoxia or impede pts breathing Blocked airway Secretions Underlying condition asthma, COPD, PE Allergies, allergic reaction Meds-watch SE Sedatives can impede breathing Age Elderly ↓elastic recoil, ↓ ability of the chest cage to move in and out Positioning
Observing the chest Shape of the chest Equal in expansion Observe abdomen when they breath-assess for belly breathing Chest is going one way, belly the other using abdominal muscles d/t weak diaphragm-ominous sign What's normal for the patient?
Signs of respiratory distress What you may see………. Pursed lip breathing Pallor, clammy, cool skin ↓ cap refill Clubbing-long-term sign Barrel chest Respiratory rate (12-20) However, all pts are different
A pt with COPD expiratory time? A pt with COPD has a longer expiratory time, trying to keep the alveoli open COPD can also have cardiac involvement-observe for JVD and distant heart tones
Cheyne-stokes Respirations gradually increase in depth, then become more shallow, followed by a period of apnea.
Biot's Highly irregular breathing pattern with abrupt pauses between efforts
Kussmaul's Respiration faster and deeper without pauses
Apneustic Respirations prolonged, gasping, followed by extremely short, inefficient expiration
Factors that alter a good wave form on a monitor Nail polish, Cold fingers, lotions
Respiratory Assessment Will I see this, What does it mean? How will I respond? Chest wall excursion, symetrical Rib fracture, pneumothorcias Tracheal deviation Chest wall tenderness Crepitus Tactile Fremitus
Normal breath sounds include: bronchial bronchovesicular Vesicular
bronchial bronchial
bronchovesicular bronchovesicular
Vesicular Vesicular
Adventitious breath sounds include: Crackles, Wheezes, Rhonchi, Pleural friction rub, Stridor
Crackles Fluid or mucous moving through the smaller airways Crackles can't be cleared with coughing, need loop diuretics, ↓ fluids
Wheezes High-pitched musical sounds
Rhonchi More course and larger airway than crackles Can be cleared with coughing and suctioning
Pleural friction rub Course, grating leather on leather rubbing sound Pneumonia, TB, pleural effusions
Stridor Narrowing of the large airways Anaphylactic reaction or extubated pt
Restlessness and agitation Look at the pulse ox, what is the pt restlessness and agitated for, it there something else going on? Could it be a pain situation?
Decreased LOC Underlying medication causing LOC? Or hypoxic? We can give oxygen, but it doesn't mean they will perfuse it.
Change in breathing pattern Reposition. Did it help?
Cyanosis or dusky Usually a late sign - can happen quickly sometimes
Accessory muscles Ominous sign-don't want to see
Dyspnea or orthopnea Turn our pts every 2 hours-chg quickly If they don't recover put in fowlers position, administer ↑ O2 if low sats
Adventitious sounds Changes from assessment to the next things are moving around Be prepared for issues that might arise
Onset of S/S distress Early s/sx Restlessness/irritability & confusion Tachypnea/DOE Tachycardia/HTN
Onset of S/S distress Late s/sx Combativeness Dyspnea at rest Cyanosis
Dysrhythmias early or late
SV02 Mixed venous oxygen saturation How well does the oxygen saturate with the hemoglobin at the venous level "ABG at venous level" Tells us if they need more oxygen if on supplemental O2
SV02 tissue perfusion At what rate is the body using oxygen, is the body demanding more oxygen to perfuse the tissues than what we're giving them? Manytimes used with pts w/ resp and cardiac problems
Don't start ? before Sputum tests Don't start ABX before new sputum sample
Pulmonary angiograms Femoral artery to pulmonary vasculature Most accurate to diagnose and locate PE's, CAT scan 2nd
ETCO2 monitoring (end tidal) At the end of respiration we assess CO2 levels because: Gas exchange takes place at the end of expiration down in the alveoli
V/Q scans Ventilation perfusion scan, how well are they ventilating and then are they perfusiing that oxygen and exchanging gas
Balance and Imbalance in Ventilation Perfusion (VQ) We want a normal balance of our ventilation and perfusion
Alterations in Ventilation: Blockage Gravity
Alterations in Perfusion: Pressures (airway/PA)
Ventilation-Perfusion Relationships V/Q ratio Relationship between_the alveoli to _the flow of blood of the lungs__ -ventilation to flow of blood
Emphysema and COPD Emphysema and COPD reduces the surface area of the alveoli
V/Q is greatest in V/Q is greatest in __base of the lungs because that where the majority of our gas exchange takes place
Possible VQ States Normal-ventilation matches perfusion Low ventilation/ perfusion exceeds High ventilation/ low perfusion
Tidal volume (VT) Amount of inhaled and exhaled air in mL, normally 6 - 10 mL/kg
Inspiratory capacity (IC) Measured with incentive spirometer
Placement of ET tube Proper placement Endo-tracheal - about 4 cm above the carina
How would you know the tube was not in the appropriate position? Bilateral breath sounds O2 sats come up nicely End-tidal CO2 within normal limits Then, look at chest x-ray for final confirmation Note and chart ET tube depth measurement at lips
Improper Placement With improper ET tube placement too low you will hear going into one lung but not the other Common to get placed in the right stem bronchus
If a patient extubates themselves Assess pt-need more O2? Bag, non-rebreather? Call for physican
Ambu bag Need in room! Need bag and valve! Need O2 wall or cylinder.
MECHANICAL Ventilation Indications: Inability to breath or apneic Severe impaired ABG imbalance-not primary reason Severe failure, hypoxia despite O2 therapy Muscle fatigue
Benefits of MV Decreases system & MVO2 requirements Helps L ventricle, decreases O2 requirements of the L ventricle Permit sedation Reduce ICP Hyperventilation reduces ICP Prevent atelectasis Secure airway Too much sedation causes respiratory depression
Goals of MV Reduction in work of breathing Assurance of patient comfort Synchrony with ventilator Adequacy of ventilation and oxygenation
Created by: mgyger