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Ch 2 Glossary, Pharm

Chapter 2, Pharmacologic Principles Glossary

QuestionAnswer
Any unexpected, unintended, undesired, or excessive response to a medication given at therapeutic dosages. Adverse drug reaction
A general term for any undesirable effects that are a direct response to one or more drugs Adverse effects
A drug that binds to and stimulates that activity of one or more receptors in the body Agonist
An immunologic hypersensitivity reaction resulting from the unusual sensitivity of a patient to a particular medication; a type of adverse drug event Allergic reaction
A drug that binds to and inhibits the activity of one or more receptors in the body. Also called inhibitors. Antagonist
A measure of the extent of drug absorption for a given drug and route (from 0% to 100%) Bioavailability
One or more biochemical reactions involving a parent drug. Occurs mainly in the liver and produces a metabolite that is either inactive or active. Also known as Metabolism Biotransformation
The name that describes the chemical composition and molecular structure of a drug Chemical name
Any condition, especially one related to a disease state or other patient characteristic, including current or recent drug therapy, that renders a particular form of treatment improper or undesirable. Contraindication
A state in which there is a compulsive or chronic need, as for a drug Dependence
The process by which solid forms of drugs disintegrate in the gastrointestinal tract and become soluble before being absorbed into the circulation Dissolution
Any chemical that affects the physiologic processes of a living organism Drug
The physiologic reactions of the body to a drug. The can be therapeutic or toxic and describe how the function of the body is affected as a whole by the drug. The terms Onset, peak, and duration are used to describe this Drug effects
The length of time the concentration of a drug in the blood or tissues is sufficient to elicit a response. Duration of action
The initial metabolism in the liver of a drug absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract before the drug reaches systemic circulation through the bloodstream First-Pass effect
The name given to a drug by the United States Adopted Names Council. Also called the nonproprietary name. Not protected by trademark. Generic name
In pharmacokinetics, the time required for half of an administered dose of drug to be eliminated by the body, or the time it takes for the blood level of a drug to be reduced by 50%. Half-life
An abnormal and unexpected response to a medicine, other than an allergic reaction, that is peculiar to an individual patient. Idiosyncratic reaction
The characteristic that causes two parenteral drugs or solutions to undergo a reaction when mixed or given together that results in the chemical deterioration of at least one of the drugs. Incompatibility
Any preventable adverse drug event involving inappropriate medication use by a patient or health care professional; it may or may not cause patient harm medication error
A chemical form of a drug that is the product of one or more biochemical reactions involving the parent drug. Active are those that have pharmacologic activity of their own, even if the parent drug is inactive. Metabolite
_ are those that have pharmacologic activity of their own, even if the parent drug is inactive. Active metabolites
_ lack pharmacologic activity and are simply drug waste products awaiting excretion from the body Inactive metabolites
The time required for a drug to elicit a therapeutic response after dosing Onset of action
The time required for a drug to reach its maximum therapeutic response in the body Peak effect
The science of preparing and dispensing drugs, including dosage form design. Pharmaceutics
The study of the biochemical and physiologic interactions of drugs at their sites of activity. it examines the physicochemical properties of drugs and their pharmacologic interactions with body receptors. Pharmacodynamics
The rate of drug distribution among various body compartments after a drug has entered the body. It includes the phases of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs Pharmacokinetics
The broadest term for the study or science of drugs Pharmacology
A molecular structure within or on the outer surface of a cell. They bind specific substances, and one or more corresponding cellular effects occurs as a result of this drug-receptor interaction. receptor
The physiologic state in which the amount of drug removed via elimination is equal to the amount of drug absorbed with each state Steady state
The desired or intended effect of a particular medication Therapeutic effect
The ratio between the toxic and therapeutic concentrations of a drug. Therapeutic index
Reduced response to a drug after prolonged use Tolerance
The condition of producing adverse bodily effects due to poisonous qualities. Toxicity
The commercial name given to a drug product by its manufacturer; also called the proprietary name Trade name
The lowest concentration of drug reached in the body after it falls from its peak level, usually measured in a blood sample for therapeutic drug monitoring. Trough level
Created by: KP1031