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Epidem 1

Epidemiology and Ethics 1: Research studies

QuestionAnswer
What is the MC foodborn bacterial GI tract infection in developed countries? Salmonella
What is the tx for a rectal fistula? Fistulotomy
In what disease would you see a Hampton's hump on x-ray? PE
Identifies 2 groups: diseased and halthy. Retrospectively compares them. Weakened by recall and selection biases. Case control study
Seeks to estmate disease prevalence and exposure across a population. Cross-sectional study
Examines a collection of studies on a given subject. Meta-analysis
Prospective blinded study involving placebos, existing therapies, and experimental interventions RCT
Focuses on one group with a shared exposure or disease and either propsectively or retrospectively compares them Cohort
Examines a collection of cases to seek insight into the disease of interest. Useful in rare diseases. Case series
Memory errors produce incorrect data. Recall bias
Subject awareness of being studied alters their answers and behavior Observational bias
Certain medical studies attract subjects with particular medical histories rather than the general population self-selection bias
Studies that show a difference are preferably published and then later included in meta-analysis rather than studies that support the null hypothesis publication bias
screening tests designed to detect asymptomatic disease may miss rapidly-progressive dz b/c the interval btwn successive screenings only detects slowly progressive ones. length bias
Screening test may allow earlier diagnosis of dz but does not translate into actual length of survival lead-time bias
What does an odds ratio estimate in the case of a dz with low prevalance? RR
Created by: sarah3148