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Male reproductive anatomy: Transverse section -- can you draw it Which contains the urethra, the corpus cavernosum, or the corpus spongiosum? [A: corpus cavernosum]
Autonomic innervation and the male sexual response: Erection (+ what are some pro- and anti-erectile drugs?) Parasympathetic nervous system (pelvic nerve) [The "P" in "Point and Shoot"]
1.) NO, sildenafil, vardenafil --> smooth muscle relaxation --> vasodilation --> proerectile
2.) NE --> smooth muscle contraction --> vasoconstriction --> anti-erectile
Autonomic innervation and the male sexual response: Emission Sympathetic nervous sytem (hypogastric nerve) [the "S" in "Point and Shoot"]
Autonomic innervation and the male sexual response: Ejaculation Visceral and somatic nerves (pudendal nerves)
Derivation of sperm parts: When does it happen? Where does the acrosome come from? The tail? What's special about the neck? What does the sperm use for energy? Occurs during final phase of spermatogenesis (spermiogenesis): spermatid --> spermatozoa Acrosome is derived from the Golgi apparatus, and flagellum (tail) from one of the centrioles. Middle piece (neck) has Mitochondria Feeds on Fructose
Androgens (list) Testosterone Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) Androstenedione
Source of androgens DHT and testosterone --> testes Androstenedione --> adrenal Potency of androgens DHT > testosterone > androstenedione
5alpha-reductase: What does it do? What substance inhibits it? Enzyme that converts testosterone --> DHT Is inhibited by finasteride. Aromatase Enzyme that converts testosterone and androstenedione to estrogen in adipose tissue and Sertoli cells
Functions of testosterone (9 of them!) 1.) Differentiation of epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles 2.) Incr muscle 3.) Incr growth spurt 4.) Incr growth of penis and seminal vesicles 5.) Incr libido 6.) Spermatogenesis 7.) Closing of epiphyseal growth plate (via estrog
Functions of DHT (4 of them) 1.) Differentiation of penis, scrotum, and prostate 2.) Balding 3.) Incr sebaceous gland activity 4.) Incr prostate growth Sources of estrogen Ovary (17Beta-estradiol)
Placenta (Estriol) blood (aromitization) Potency of estrogens Estradiol > estrone > estriol Estrogen levels in pregnancy 50x increase in estradiol and estrone 1000x increase in estriol (indicator of fetal well-being)
Functions of estrogen (10 of them!) 1.) Growth of follicle 2.) Endometrial proliferation 3.) Development of genitalia 4.) Stromal development of breast 5.) Female fat distribution 6.) Hepatic synthesis of transport proteins (incr synthesis of sex hormone-binding globulin) 7.) Feedback
Pulsatile GnRH upregulates what? FSH and LH
What does desmolase respond to? What cell is it in? What does it do? In response to LH, desmolase (in theca cells) will convert XOL --> androstenedione (providing the substrate for aromatase in the granulosa cell)
What does aromatase respond to? What cell is it in? What does it do? In response to FSH, aromatase (in granulosa cells) converts androstenedione --> estrogen Sources of progesterone Corpus luteum, placenta, adrenal cortex, testes
What does elevation of progesterone indicate? Indicates ovulation.
Functions of progesterone (7 of them!) 1.) Stimulation of endometrial glandular secretions and spiral artery development 2.) Maintenance of pregnancy ("PROGESTerone is PRO-GESTation") 3.) Decr myometrial excitability 4.) Production of thick cervical mucus, which inhibitis sperm entry into t
When is follicular growth the fastest in the menstrual cycle? During the 2nd week of the proliferative phase
What does estrogen do in the menstrual cycle? Stimulates endometrial proliferation.
What does progesterone do in the menstrual cycle? Maintains endometrium to support implantation (decr progesterone leads to decr fertility)
Phases of the menstrual cycle Proliferative (follicular) phase --(ovulation)--> secretory (luteal) phase
Timing of the menstrual cycle: which part can vary, and which is constant? Follicular phase can vary in length. Luteal phase is usually a constant 14 days. Ovulation day + 14 days = menstruation.
Order of events in terms of blood hormones and menstrual cycle Estrogen surge | LH surge | Ovulation | Progesterone (from corpus luteum) | Menstruation [*this would probably be a good chart to be able to reproduce]
What causes ovulation? Estrogen surge the day before ovulation stimulates LH release, which causes ovulation (rupture of follicle)
Associated w/ ovulation? Increased temperature (progesterone induced) Ferning* of cervical mucosa Mittelschmerz (blood from ruptured follicle causes peritoneal irritation that can mimic appendicitis) [Ferning is "the formation of a fernlike pattern in a specimen of
Spermatogonia (germ cells) Maintain germ pool and produce primary spermatocytes Line seminiferous tubules
Sertoli Cells (non-germ cells) Secrete inhibin --> inhibit FSH Secrete androgen-binding protein (ABP) --> maintain levels of testosterone Form blood-testis barrier --> isolate gametes from autoimmune attack Support and nourish developing spermatozoa Regulate spermatogenesis Produc
Leydig cells (endocrine cells) Secrete testosterone Interstitium
Spermatogenesis: When does it start? how long does it take? Where does it occur? Spermatogenesis begins at puberty w/ spermatogonia. Full development takes 2 months. Occurs in seminiferous tubules.
Step 2 of spermatogenesis: What is the ploidy? What phase of replication 1x4N diploid primary spermatocyte becomes: 2x2N haploid secondary spermatocytes. This is Meiosis I.
Step 3 of spermatogenesis: What is the ploidy? What phase of replication is this? 2xHaploid (2N) secondary spermatocytes become 4xHaploid (1N) spermatids (which then develop into spermatozoan) This is Meiosis II
Regulation of spermatogenesis: Hypothalamus and anterior pituitary? Hypothalamus --(GnRH)--> Anterior pituitary (Hypothalamus receives negative feedback from testosterone released into blood by Leydig cells)
Regulation of spermatogenesis: What role does the anterior pituitary play? In response to GnRH (from hypothalamus): Creates LH (acts on Leydig cells) and FSH (acts on Sertoli cells) in the seminiferous tubule Receives negative feedback from inhibin created by Sertoli cells
Regulation of spermatogenesis: Role of LH and FSH Released from anterior pituitary. LH: stimulates testosterone release from Leydig cells (testosterone then upregulates Sertoli cells' sperm production) FSH: Stimulates Sertoli cells to produce ABP and inhibin.
When does the primary oocyte begin meiosis I? When does it complete meiosis I? What happens between? Begins meisosis I during fetal life. Completes meisosis I just prior to ovulation. Meiosis I is arrested in prOphase for years until Ovulation (primary oocytes) Where is meiosis II arrested? (in oogenesis) Meiosis II is arrested in METaphase until fert
Step one of oogenesis: What are the cells called and what is their ploidy? A diploid Oogonium (2N) replicates its DNA to become a diploid primary oocyte (4N)
Step two of oogenesis (Meiosis I): What are the cells, and what is their ploidy? Where in the cell cycle is this stage arrested? 1 primary oocyte (diploid, 4N) divides into 1 secondary oocyte (haploid, 2N) and a polar body, which can degenerate or give rise to 2 polar bodies. Meiosis I is arrested in Prophase I until ovulation
Step 3 in oogenesis (Meisosis II): What are the cells and what is their ploidy? Where is this arrested? 1 secondary oocyte (haploid, 2N) divides into an ovum (haploid, N) and a polar body. (The 1st polary body may also divide into 2 more polar bodies at this point). Meisosis II is arrested in metaphase II until fertilization.
Fertilization most commonly occurs where? When does it occur? Most commonly occurs in the upper end of fallopian tube. Occurs 1 day after ovulation.
When does implantation occur? Implantation within the wall of the uterus occurs 6 days after fertilization.
What do you measure in a home pregnancy test, and how soon can you see it? Trophoblasts secrete Beta-hCG, which is detectable in blood 1 week after conception and on home test in urine 2 weeks after conception.
Created by: dokterdiaz