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CV 9 HTN I

Hypertension Part I

QuestionAnswer
What causes hypocalcemia, high phosphorous, and low PTH? Hypoparathyroidism
What is the classic EKG finding in pericaridits? global ST elevation
What commonly causes heart failure in young pts? Myocarditis
How many consecutive abnormally high readings are needed b/f prescribing BP medications? 3 (on 3 separate occassions)
What intervention is most effective at reducing BP? Weight loss
What is the preferred initial antihypertensive in a pt with no comorbidities? Thiazide diuretics (HTZ usually)
What BP range is considered pre-HTN? 120-139/80-89
Name the first line anti-hypertensive: diabetes ACE-i or ARB
Name the first line anti-hypertensive: heart failure (multiple) ACE-i/ARB, BB, aldosterone antagonist (spironolactone)
Name the first line anti-hypertensive: BPH alpha blockers (zosins)
Name the first line anti-hypertensive: LVH ACE-i/ARB
Name the first line anti-hypertensive: hyperthyroidism BB, specifically propanolol
Name the first line anti-hypertensive: osteoporosis Thiazide diuretics (HTZ); remember this is not a primary tx for osteoporosis
Name the first line anti-hypertensive: benign essential tremor BB
Name the first line anti-hypertensive: post-menopausal woman Thiazide diuretics (HTZ); remember this is not a primary tx for osteoporosis
Name the first line anti-hypertensive: migraines BB
Which antihypertensive druds fit the following SE?: first dose orthostatic hypotension alpha blocker
Which antihypertensive druds fit the following SE?: hypertrichosis (hairy monster) minoxidil
Which antihypertensive druds fit the following SE?: dry mouth, sedation, *severe rebound HTN* clonidine
Which antihypertensive druds fit the following SE?: bradycardia, impotence, asthma exacerbation non-selective BB
Which antihypertensive druds fit the following SE?: reflex tachycardia hydralazine
Which antihypertensive druds fit the following SE?: cough ACE-i
Which antihypertensive druds fit the following SE?: avoid in pts with sulfa allergy Thiazides (HTZ) and loop diuretics
Which antihypertensive druds fit the following SE?: angioedema ACE-i
Which antihypertensive druds fit the following SE?: development of drug-induced lupus (anti-histone Ab) hydralazine
Which antihypertensive druds fit the following SE?: cyanide toxicity sodium nitroprusside
Which kind of vasodilation-- venous, arterial, or both?: nitroglycerin vv
Which kind of vasodilation-- venous, arterial, or both?: dihydropyridine CCBs vv and aa
Which kind of vasodilation-- venous, arterial, or both?: hydralazine aa
Which kind of vasodilation-- venous, arterial, or both?: nitroprusside vv and aa
What heart sounds might be heard in a pt with essential (primary) HTN? loud S2, possible S4 (LVH, stiffened ventricle)
Which class of antihypertensives is particularly effective for blacks and salt-sensitive individuals? Diuretics, esp HTZ
What electrolyte abnormalities might you see as a SE of diuretics like HTZ? Hypokalemia, hyponatremia. HTZ will actually decrease calcium loss in the urine though.
What class of antihypertensives is more effective in young white people? ACE-i
Which antihypertensive class is teratogenic? ACE-i
Which ACE-i SE is a contraindication to its use? Hyperkalemia. It can also cause azotemia (increases renal blood flow but decreases GFR by working on efferent), but this is not a contraindication in renal dz.
Created by: sarah3148