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Chapter 31 & 32

Musculoskeletal System

3 main functions motion, support, protection
Preservation of motion the most important to prevent orthopedic disabilities(from immobility)
Bursa fluid filled provides cushion at friction points
Fascia seperates the muscles
Tendons movement
cartilages cushion
connective tissue tendons and cartilage
Ligaments joins the bones of a joint together
Haversian system runs through the bone and contains the blood and lymph vessels
musculoskeletal system consists of bones joints cartilage ligaments tendons and muscles 206 bones in body
Bones contain red blood marrow
Length of bones long short flat and irregular
rigid framework supports organs and skin
functions of Bone produce red bone marrow, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
Functions of bones 2 store and release minerals
Bones transport nutrients to the bone cells and remove wastes
Remodeling existing bone is reabsorbed into body and new bone is built by osteoblasts to replace it.
Muscles providing movement and joint stability
aging decreased bone density and brittle an less compact bone
elderly bones do not heal readily
Kyphosis(dowagers hump) thinning intervertebral and collapse of the vertebra
Crepitation joint cartilage thins/erodes stiffness
Osteoporosis occurs mostly in women
Calcified ligaments lose their elasticity
muscle cramping at night, increases because of impaired circulation and accumulation of metabolic wastes.
causes of musculoskeletal disease, trauma, malnutrition, and aging, decrease in estrogen
Steroids refrain from long term use
weight training and exercises can decrease osteoporosis and increase muscle strength
Goniometry measurement of joint motion with a goniometer
Kyphosis thinning interverebral cartilage and collapse of the vertebra
Contractures begins 3-7 days after immobilization shortening of skeletal muscle tissue causing deformity
Ankylosis permanent fixation of a joint
Flaccid footboard
Roto rest bed
Fluid Air bed prevent pressure sores
Cane is advanced at the same time as the affected leg
four point gait Advance L crutch R foot Right crutch left foot
three point gait Advance both crutches forward with affected leg and shift weight to crutches
two point gait advance L crutch and R foot Right crutch and L foot walking pattern
RICE rest ice compression elevation
Sprain stages Grade 1- mild tenderness minimal swelling Grade 2- moderate more severe pain(weight bearing) swelling and bleeding into joint some loss of function Grade 3- severe complete tearing of fibers. Pain be less pain, swelling, loss of function bleeding joint
Sprain apply ice immediately 24-72 hours, 10-20 mins every 1-2 hours
strain most common, swelling, pain
Tear bleeding(ecchymosis, hemorragic spots
subluxation partial dislocation
ACL tears from femur to tibia
Heel bone calcaneus
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome nerve problem that occurs when the median nerve is compressed as it passes through the carpal tunnel in the wrist
Bunion(Hallux Valgus) foot problem- great toe
closed fractures manipulated into alignment , no surgical incision
open reduction compound surgical incision, surgical incision
internal fixation pins, nails, screws, metal plates, brittle bones
external fixation pins, bars, rods outside of leg(screwed in to leg on outside, sturdy external frame placed into bone with pins
nonunion failure to heal
osteogenesis growth of bone cells
fiberglass polyester cotton knitt
complete fracture breaks into 2 parts completely seperated
incomplete fracture 2 parts no seperated
comminuted fracture shattered into more than 2 fractures
closed(simple) fracture no skin broken
open (compound) fracture bone protrudes the skin
Greenstick fracture common in children-partially broken and partially bent
Pain control if elevating limb doesn't relieve pain within 30 mins notify Dr.
Traction application of a mechanical pull to a part of the body for the purpose of extending and holding that part in a certain position during immobilization
Osteomyelitis bacterial infection of the bone (staph) enters blood stream from boil, open wound
compartment syndrome one or more muscle compartments external and internal pressure and seriously restricts circulation to the area
Embolism occurs happens within 48 hours of fracture
lyme disease bite of a deer tick
Osteoarthritis inflammation of a joint
Rheumatoid Arthritis inflammatory disease of the joints
Gammalinolenic Acid a fatty acid found in the seeds of evening primrose and borage plants
Synovectomy the excision of the synovia membrane of a joint
Arthoroplasty surgial repair of the hip joint
Gout is arthritis of a joint caused by high serum levels of uric acid
osteopenia low bone mass
Osteoporosis silent disease
Paget's Disease common in men, unknown cause, abnormal bone resorption followed by replacement of normal marrow with fibrous connective tissue
Tumors arise from cartilage bones and fibrous tissue
Created by: 100002452448118