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DES Nutrition

Nutrition Saunders NCLEX-RN #4

QuestionAnswer
What do Vitamins do facilitate metabolism of proteins, fats, and carbs - act as catalysts for metabolic funcitons
Fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, K - can be stored thus can have toxicity levels
Water-soluble vitamins B, C - not stored, can be excreted in urine
Blood-clotting vitamin K - antidote for warfarin
Production of collagen vitamin C - component in wound healing
Eyesight & Epithelial lining vitamin A
Calories per gram - Fat, Carbs, Proteins F = 9 cal/g C = 4 cal/g P = 4 cal/g
Clear liquid diet boring, unappetizing, deficient in energy, may have salt or sugar, no pulp juices.
Full liquid diet transition diet from clear liquids - energy deficient, clear and opaque liquids. For those with difficulty chewing, dental problems, head or neck surgery, or dysphagia
Low-residue, Low-fiber diet GI inflammation, scarring or loss of motility - white bread, refined cooked cereals, cooked potatoes w/o skins, white rice, refined pasta - no raw fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds or whole grains
High-fiber diet 20-35 g of fiber daily - used for constipation, diveticulosis, DM, obesity, hyperlipidemia - speeds GI, fruits, vegetables, whole grain products
Cardiac diet Indicated for atherosclerosis, DM, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, MI - restricts sat fat, trans-fat, cholesterol, and sodium
Fat-restricted diet reduce sympotoms of ab pain, steatorrhea, flatulence, diarrhea, malabsorption disorders, pancreatitis, gallbladder disease, and GERD. Restrict total fat (sat, trans, polyun, and monoun)
High-calorie, High-protein diet For severe stress, burns, wounds, cancer, HIV, AIDS, COPD, resp failure, (debilitatig diseases) - nutrient dense, high-cal, high-protein foods. Snacks between meals.
Carbohydrate-consistent diet DM, hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and obesity - Meal Planning
Sodium-restricted diet for hypertension, CHF, renal disease, cardiac disease, liver disease. 4 g of sodium daily - (no added salt diet), 2-3 g (moderate), 1 g (strict), 500 mg (severe / seldom prescribed)
Protein-restricted diet Renal disease and liver disease. no buildup of waste products (40-60 g daily)
Renal diet Acute or chronic RF, hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis pts. For dialysis pt - restrict fluids
Potassium-modified diet for impaired renal function, hypoaldosteronism, Addison's, ACE inhibitors, immunosuppressants, K+sparing diuretics, chronic hyperkalemia. Applesauce, green beans, cabbage, lettuce, pepers, grapes, blueberries, cooked summer squash, pineapples, raspberries
High-calcium diet bone growth, prevent osteoporosis, facilitate vascular contraction, vasodilation, muscle contraction, nerve transmission. Dairy products.
Low-purine diet Gout, kidney stones, and elevated uric acid. (Purines brake down into uric acid).
High-iron diet Anemia - organ meats, meat, egg yolks, whole-wheat products, dark green leafy vegetables, dried fruit, legumes. Vitamin C helps absorption
Vegetarian diet must supplement protein and vit B12. others include zinc, iron, calcium, omega-3 fatty acids, vit D (w/o sun)
Enteral Nutrition Liquified foods into GI via tube
Created by: dstrobel1230