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Test1_Chapter 30

Management of Patients With Complications From Heart Disease-Chapter 30

QuestionAnswer
acute decompensated heart failure: acute exacerbation of heart failure, with signs and symptoms resulting in markedly lower systemic perfusion
afterload: the resistance to ejection of blood from a ventricle
anuria: urine output of less than 50 mL/24 h
ascites: an accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity
cardiac output (CO): the amount of blood pumped out of the heart in 1 minute
cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT): a treatment for heart failure in which a device paces both ventricles to synchronize contractions
compliance: the elasticity or amount of “give” when blood enters the ventricle
congestive heart failure (CHF): a fluid overload condition (congestion) associated with heart failure contractility:
diastolic heart failure: the inability of the heart to pump sufficiently because of an alteration in the ability of the heart to fill; current term used to describe a type of heart failure
ejection fraction (EF): percentage of blood volume in the ventricles at the end of diastole that is ejected during systole; a measurement of contractility
heart failure (HF): the inability of the heart to pump sufficient blood to meet the needs of the tissues for oxygen and nutrients; signs and symptoms of pulmonary and systemic congestion may or may not be present
left-sided heart failure (left ventricular failure): inability of the left ventricle to fill or pump (empty) sufficient blood to meet the needs of the tissues for oxygen and nutrients; traditional term used to describe patient’s symptoms of heart failure
oliguria: diminished urine output; less than 500 mL/24 h
orthopnea: shortness of breath when laying flat
paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (PND): shortness of breath that occurs suddenly during sleep
pericardiocentesis: procedure that involves aspiration of fluid from the pericardial sac
pericardiotomy: surgically created opening of the pericardium
preload: the amount of myocardial stretch just before systole caused by the volume of blood presented to the ventricle
pulmonary edema: abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitial spaces and alveoli of the lungs
pulseless electrical activity (PEA): condition in which electrical activity is present but there is not an adequate pulse or blood pressure
pulsus paradoxus: systolic blood pressure that is more than 10 mm Hg higher during exhalation than during inspiration; difference is normally less than 10 mm Hg
right-sided heart failure (right ventricular failure): inability of the right ventricle to fill or pump (empty) sufficient blood to the pulmonary circulation
stroke volume (SV): amount of blood pumped out of the ventricle with each contraction
systolic heart failure: inability of the heart to pump sufficiently because of an alteration in the ability of the heart to contract; current term used to describe a type of heart failure.
Created by: jhrobins99