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Test1_Chapter 26

Assessment of Cardiovascular Function - Chapter 26

QuestionAnswer
acute coronary syndrome refers to rupture of an atheromatous plaque in a diseased coronary artery, which rapidly forms an obstructive thrombus
afterload the amount of resistance to ejection of blood from the ventricle
apical impulse (also called point of maximum impulse) impulse normally palpated at the fifth intercostal space, left midclavicular line; caused by contraction of the left ventricle
atrioventricular (AV) node secondary pacemaker of the heart, located in the right atrial wall near the tricuspid valve
baroreceptors nerve fibers located in the aortic arch and carotid arteries that are responsible for reflex control of the blood pressure
cardiac catheterization an invasive procedure used to measure cardiac chamber pressures and assess patency of the coronary arteries
cardiac conduction system specialized heart cells strategically located throughout the heart that are responsible for methodically generating and coordinating the transmission of electrical impulses to the myocardial cells
cardiac output amount of blood pumped by each ventricle in liters per minute
cardiac stress test a test used to evaluate the functioning of the heart during a period of increased oxygen demand
contractility ability of the cardiac muscle to shorten in response to an electrical impulse
depolarization electrical activation of a cell caused by the influx of sodium into the cell while potassium exits the cell
diastole period of ventricular relaxation resulting in ventricular filling
ejection fraction percentage of the end-diastolic blood volume ejected from the ventricle with each heartbeat
hemodynamic monitoring use of pressure monitoring devices to directly measure cardiovascular function
hypertension blood pressure that is persistently greater than 140/90 mm Hg
hypotension a decrease in blood pressure to less than 100/60 mm Hg that compromises systemic perfusion
murmurs sounds created by abnormal, turbulent flow of blood in the heart
myocardial ischemia condition in which heart muscle cells receive less oxygen than needed
myocardium muscle layer of the heart responsible for the pumping action of the heart
normal heart sounds sounds produced when the valves close; normal heart sounds are S1 (atrioventricular valves) and S2 (semilunar valves)
opening snaps abnormal diastolic sound generated during opening of a rigid AV valve leaflet
postural (orthostatic) hypotension a significant drop in blood pressure (usually 10 mm Hg systolic or more) after an upright posture is assumed
preload degree of stretch of the cardiac muscle fibers at the end of diastole
pulmonary vascular resistance resistance to right ventricular ejection of blood
radioisotopes unstable atoms that emit small amounts of energy in the form of gamma rays; used in cardiac nuclear medicine studies
repolarization return of the cell to resting state, caused by reentry of potassium into the cell while sodium exits the cell
S1 the first heart sound produced by closure of the atrioventricular (mitral and tricuspid) valves
S2 the second heart sound produced by closure of the semilunar (aortic and pulmonic) valves
S3 an abnormal heart sound detected early in diastole as resistance is met to blood entering either ventricle; most often due to volume overload associated with heart failure
S4 an abnormal heart sound detected late in diastole as resistance is met to blood entering either ventricle during atrial contraction; most often caused by hypertrophy of the ventricle
sinoatrial (SA) node primary pacemaker of the heart, located in the right atrium
stroke volume amount of blood ejected from the ventricle per heartbeat
summation gallop the abnormal sound created during tachycardia by the presence of an S3 and S4
systemic vascular resistance resistance to left ventricle ejection
systole period of ventricular contraction resulting in ejection of blood from the ventricles into the pulmonary artery and aorta
systolic click abnormal systolic sound created by the opening of a calcified aortic or pulmonic valve during ventricular contraction
telemetry the process of continuous electrocardiographic monitoring by the transmission of radio waves from a battery-operated transmitter worn by the patient
Created by: jhrobins99