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Patho I


Components of plasma 92% water 7%plasma proteins
Functions of plasma (4) 1)Excreting waste products 2)Carries nutrients 3)Transports hormones 4)Contains clotting agents
Primary Hemostasis (3) 1)Initial response to vascular injury involving the interaction between platelets and the endothelium of the injured vessel 2)Vascular spasm 3)Platelet plug formation
Secondary Hemostasis (2) 1)Coagulation 2) Clot retraction
Hyperplasia More cells
Hypertrophy Bigger cells
Dysplasia Normal cells grown abnormal
Metaplasia One normal cell type turns into another normal cell type
Atrophy Smaller cells
Internal defenses of the specific immune system(5) 1)Phagocytes 2)Fever 3)NK cells 4)Antimicrobial proteins 5)Inflammation
Type I Hypersensitivity What? Antibody? Speed? Primary effector cells? Mediator? Allergies, eczema IgE Immediate Mast cells and Basophils Histamine
Type II What? Speed? Antibodies? Tissue specific Immediate IgG, IgM
Type III Hypersensitivity Immune complex reaction
Type IV Hypersensitivity Speed? Antibody? Principal mediators? Principal effector cells? Delayed, starts slow No primary antibody Lymphocytes, helper Ts, cytotoxic T Lymphocytes and macrophages
What type of disease is Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome B and T cell immunodeficiency
What type of disease is DiGeorge Syndrome T cell immunodeficiency
What type of disease is Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis T cell immunodeficiency
What type of disease is IgA deficiency B cell immunodeficiency
What type of disease is X linked agammaglobulinemia B cell immunodeficiency
What type of disease is Transient hypogammaglobulinemia B cell immunodeficiency
What nutrients contribute to RBC pathologies (4) 1) Iron 2)Protein 3)Minerals 4)Vitamins
What is iron in RBC pathology required for? Hemoglobin synthesis
What vitamins are required for RBC pathology? (4) B12, B6, folate, riboflavin
Neutropenia A type of leukopenia in which he absolute neutrophil count is below 500 cells
Thrombocytopenia A deficiency of platelets in the peripheral blood
What type of disease are Marfan's syndrome and Huntington disease? Autosomal dominant
What type of disease are Albinism and Cystic Fibrosis? Autosomal recessive
What type of disease are Hemophilia A and Fragile X Syndrome? X linked
Turners Syndrome XO, females
Kleinfelter Syndrome XXY, males
Cystic Fibrosis Thick mucus secretions are produced by body tracts
Phenylketonuria (PKU) Phenylalanine can't be broken down, low melanin
Intrinsic clotting cascade Initiated when blood contacts altered endothelium or negatively charged surface>Platelet factor 3>produces active factor IX and VIII which activates factor X
Extrinsic clotting cascade Initiated when factor III is released by injured tissue>activates factor VII/TF III which can activate factor X
Hemophilia A Inability to form blood clots>factor VIII deficiency
Hemophilia B Factor IX deficiency
Prothrombin time Evaluates the clotting factors of the intrinsic pathway
Thrombin time Measures the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin
Multiple Sclerosis (Upper or lower?) Upper motor neurons
Guillain Barre Syndrome (Upper or lower?) Lower motor neurons
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Upper or lower?) Upper and Lower motor neurons
Bell Palsy (Upper or lower?) Lower motor neurons
Absence/Petit Mal brief, occurs only in children, staring spell
Atypical absence staring spell is accompanied by myoclonic jerks
Myoclonic extremely brief, single jerk
atonic/drop attack sudden , complete loss of muscle tone
Cutaneous Pain sensation of pain arising from the skin
Visceral pain pain usually arising from the internal organs
Psychogenic Occurs when tissue injury has occurred, and arises to prevent further injury
Nonpalpable freckle
Palpable (solid) Mole, fibroma
Palpable (fluid filled) Herpes, acne
Erosion Partial loss of epidermis
Ulceration loss of full epidermis
Fissure Split through all epidermal layers
Atrophy Thinning of the skin
Excoriation loss of outer skin layers due to scratching
Crust collection of serous exudates and debris on the surface of damaged outer skin
Scale compact portion of flaking stratum corneum
Lichenification epidermal thickening and roughening with visible furrows
Scar fibrous tissue replaces lost epidermal and dermal tissue
Bacterial infections (3) Impetigo, syphilis, leprosy
Viral infections (2) Verrucae, Herpes
Fungal infections (2) Dermatophytes, Candida albicans
Verrucae Warts
Rubeola 7 day measles
Rubella 3 day measles
What does scarlet fever commonly occur after? Strep throat
Osteoarthritis Morning stiffness for less than 30 min. Increased pain with increased function No inflammatory
Infectious Arthritis Wingle, warm, very swollen joint Low grade fever, chills Leukocytosis
Rheumatoid Arthritis Inflammatory Cardiac manifestations
Lupus Erythematous arthralgia and synovitis Deformities
Scleroderma Raynaud phenomenon Bilateral hand and foot swelling Thickening of skin
Ankylosing Spondylitis Low back pain
Reactive Arthritis (Reiter syndrome) Enthesitis, Iritis
Gout warm, red, tender joint Sudden attack of pain Urate crystals
Adult onset still disease High fever rash on trunk and extremities
Myopia Elongated eye>nearsightedness
Hyperopia Shorter eye>Farsightedness
Presbyopia Loss of accommodative capacity
Astigmatism irregularity in curvature of the cornea or lens
Dry/Atrophic macular degeneration Degeneration of the outer retina, pigmented layer, and the choroid
Wet/Exudative macular degeneration rapid onset and severe>retinal capillaries dilate and become more permeable
Osteomalacia Deficits in mineralization of newly formed osteoid
Paget disease Initial excessive bone resorption is followed by excessive bone formation
Osteomyelitis Severe pyogenic infection of red marrow rich bones and local tissue
Major cause of osteomyelitis bloodstream
Reiter syndrome effects (4) Arthritis, urethritis, conjunctivitis, hyperkeratosis
Pemphigus Hypersensitivity Type II and III
Eczema Hypersensitivity Type I
Contact Dermatitis Hypersensitivity Type IV
Vasculitis Hypersensitivity Type III
Created by: mindy.morse