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Respiratory Disorders

Influenza Upper respiratory disease. Upper respiratory viral infection.
Influenza viral strains A - more serious forms during flu season B - more serious forms during flu season C - cause mild S/S. often confused with a cold. Always hanging around.
S/S of Influenza Prodromal Stage: feel like coming down with something Clinical Stage: congestion and sore throat, runny nose and fever.
Diagnosis of Influenza Self diagnosed based on S/S. Doctor to confirm
Treatment for Influenza - Palliative Treatments: Fluids, Rest, Decongestants, Hot soup
Prognosis for Influenza Get better in 1 week to 10 days Almost never fatal. Some people get a secondary bacteria infection.
Lower Respiratory Disease People with weak immune systems are at an increased risk. Could lead to Pneumonia. Could be fatal.
Diagnostic procedures for Lower Respiratory Diseases. -Auscultation: listening for Rales and abnormal breath sounds. Make sure air is flowing in and out. -Chest X Ray
S/S for Lower Respiratory Disease Hemoptysis, Hypoxia, Hypercapnea, Respiratory acidosis, Atelectasis, Pneumothorax
Hemoptysis Coughing up blood from lungs.
Hypoxia A lack of oxygen.
Hypercapnea An excess of carbon dioxide.
Respiratory Acidosis A decrease in the pH of body fluids due to a buildup of carbon dioxide.
Atelectasis A partial or complete collapse of lung tissue.
Pneumothorax The presence of air between the Visceral pleura and the Parietal pleura.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Transitional stage between Bronchitis and Emphysema. Has the signs of both. Is controlable.
Chronic Bronchitis Has bronchitis for three months out of a year for 2 consecutive years. Affects Bronchi (large airways). Can be cured. Can lead to emphysema.
Obstruction to air flow in chronic bronchistis. Inflamation and mucus obstruct bronchi. Obstructive disease.
Eitology of Chronic Bronchitis Infection (not usual) or Irritation (most likely and ususally from smoking or occupational exposure). Smoking is the most common cause of Chronic Bronchitis.
S/S of Chronic Bronchitis Coughing with mucus. Easily SOB. Because the walls are inflamed they make more mucus.
Diagnosis of Chronic Bronchitis Based on S/S. Cough up mucus = bronchitis
Treatment for Chronic Bronchitis Remove source or couse of Irretation. Stop smoking or treat infection.
Prognisis for Chronic Bronchitis Reversible but eventually leads to damage to other parts of the lung like the alveoli. COPD stage in about 15 years. If it continues longer it leads to emphysema.
Emphysema Break down of elasticity of respiratory tissues. Not reversable. Poor gas exchange. Exhaling is no longer passive.
Bullae A group of overinflated alveoli. A lot of oxygen in the bullae is too far from the wall of the alveoli to be of use.
Obstruction of air flow in Emphysema Loss of elacticy
Eitology of Emphysema Chronic Bronchitis (most common). A small amount of people have a genetic defect in how their body processes elastin.
S/S of Emphysema Pink Puffers and Blue Bloaters. Both have labored breathing.
Pink Puffers -Oxygen levels = normal -CO2 levels = slightly elevated (Pink skin) -pH = normal -Barrell chest with thin arms and legs -Weight loss -increase mucus because air is not moving out
Blue Bloaters -Hypoxia (Blue skin) -Hypercapnea -Respiratory Acidosis -Cor Pulmonale:RCHF leads to systemic edema (bloat)
Diagnosis for Emphysema Pulmonary Function Test.
Treatment for Emphysema Stop smoking. Eventually the damage is done. Supplimental oxygen at Blue Bloater Stage.
Prognosis for Emphysema Pink eventually becomes Blue. Irreversable. When it reaches a certain point it is fatal. People die of respiratory or heart failure.
Bronchial Asthma Obstruction of smallest branches of airway. Spasm of muscle cell around small airways causing obstruction. No air to alveoli.
Obstruction of air flow for Asthma Bronchosmpasm. Inflammation leads to more mucus.
Eitology of Asthma Idiopathic, Familial, More common in people with allergies, More common in people who live in crowded areas. Can start at any age but usually starts at a young age.
Triggers for Asthma Intrinsic: Stress, emotions, exercise induced, anxiety induced. Extrinsic: Inhaled Alllergens (pollen), Inhaled Irritants (dust), Cold air.
S/S of Asthma Wheezing, severe difficulty breathing, coughing up thick mucus.
Diagnosis of Asthma Pulmonary Function Test: abnormal results even when not having an asthma attack.
Treatment of Asthma Bronchodilator Corticosteroids Inhaler to prevent attacks Injection when having an attack
Bronchiodilators relax muscle cells in smallest branches of lung. Chemically related to Adrenaline.
Corticosteroids Decrease swelling. Chemically related to Cortazone.
Inhalers Allow us to use a smaller dose of medication. Medication goes directly to lungs.
Prognosis of Asthma -Most are managable -Medications are very good at controlling attacks -Childhood asthma sometimes goes away in puberty -If still present after puberty it is a lifelong disease. -If you do not respond to treatment it can be fatal.
Created by: owossopatho