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Vascular Disorders

Vascular disorders

QuestionAnswer
Atherosclerosis A build up of fatty deposits (plaque) within blood vessels. Atherosclerosis leads to Arterioscleroisis and Ateriostenosis.
Infarct dead tissue
Infarction the process of tissue dying
Risk factors for Atherosclerosis Smoking, Obesity, Hyperlipidemia, Alcohol, Diabetes, Stress, Hypertention, Inactivity, Sex (gender), and Genetic.
Stage 1 for atherosclerosis Plaque is present and growing but not causing ischemia.
What is Plaque? mostly cholesterol, Lipid deposite, Calcified Cholesterol
S/S in stage 1 of atherosclerosis Asympotmatic
Stage 2 for atherosclerosis Platelets start to stick to plaque forming a clot. Walls of artery become inflammed. Plaque + Clot + Inflammed wall
S/S of stage 2 Atherosclerosis Ischemia causing angina or mini strokes or numbness and tingling.
Stage 3 for Atherosclerosis Necrosis due to severe ischemia - Infarction
S/S for stage 3 Atherosclerosis -Myocardial infarction -peripheral infarction -cerebral infarction
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) Atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries. Build up of plaque, clot, and inflamation in the arteries going to the myocardium.
Etiology of CAD Idiopathic
Risk factors for CAD Smoking, Obesity, Hyperlipidemia, Alcohol, Diabetes, Stress, Hypertention, Inactivity, Sex (gender), and Genetic.
Stage 1 for CAD Can be detected in Stress Test and confirmed with angiogram. Best stage to catch disease.
Goal for stage 1 for CAD Not to reach Stage 2.
Treatment for stage 1 for CAD Look at risk factors and address them with lifestyle changes. Medication to manage risk factors. Take an Aspirin a day.
Stage 2 for CAD Stable Angina = Occational chest pain durring times of activity (elevated heart rate) then goes away at rest. Unstable Angina = chest pain not associated with activity.
Goal for stage 2 for CAD Get them back to stage 1
Treatment for stage 2 for CAD -Stent implant: done through cath -bypass surgery: done when they can't get stent in. CABG = coronary artery bypass graft
Stage 3 for CAD Myocardial Infarction - Heart attack
Goal for stage 3 for CAD survive
Treatment for stage 3 for CAD - call 911 and take an aspirin - Give oxygen, Nitroglycerin, and hook up IV -TIME IS CRITICAL - confirm MI with EKG. Take drug called TPA to dissolve a clot. -Angiogram done in cath lab and placement of a stent -CABG or Bypass done in surgery
Cerebrovascular Disease (CVD) Atherosclerosis of the carotid arteries and other arteries to or in the brain. Happens gradually.
Etiology of CVD Idiopathic
Risk factors for CVD Smoking, Obesity, Hyperlipidemia, Alcohol, Diabetes, Stress, Hypertention, Inactivty, Sex (gender) and Genetic.
S/S for stage 1 for CVD Asymptomatic. Can be diagnosed in stage one with a carotid arteries ultrasound (doppler).
Goal in stage 1 for CVD Not to get to stage 2
Treatment for stage 1 for CVD - Analyse risk factors and address them with lifestyle changes. - Medications such as Zocor and Blood pressure Meds - Take an aspirin a day
Stage 2 for CVD Patient starts to develope signs and symptoms.
S/S for stage 2 for CVD -occational, temperary weakness in part of the body -Temporary changes in vision -Confusion or affect memory -Mini stroke (TIA) minutes to hours only -Tingling or numbness
Goal for stage 2 for CVD Get them back to stage 1. Determine how severe and if it is CVD.
Treatment for stage 2 for CVD -Angiogram to confirm and to determine the severity -Stent -Bypass
Stage 3 for CVD Stroke, Cerebral Infarction, Cerebral Vascular Accident (CVA)
Goal for stage 3 for CVD Survive
Treatment for stage 3 for CVD -Call 911 and take an aspirin -Get to ER ASAP to confirm what type of stroke with and angiogram, Occlusive Stroke or Hemorrhagic Stroke.
Treatment for Occlusive Stroke - Clot buster - TPA drug to dissolve clot - Stent -Bypass
Treatment for Hemorrhagic Stroke (ruptured Aneurysm) - Surgical repair ONLY -No TPA
Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD) Artherosclerosis of arteries outside the heart or brain. Found in Brachial and Femorial arteries most often.
Eitology of PVD Idiopathic
Risk factors for PVD Smoking, Obesity, Hyperlipidemia, Alcohol, Diabetes, Stress, Hypertension, Inactivity, Sex (gender), and Genetics
Stage 1 for PVD Screen with a doppler ultrasound to look at brachial and femorial arteries.
Goal for stage 1 for PVD To keep it from getting worse
Treatments for stage 1 for PVD - Address lifestyle changes form risk factors - Medications from risk factors - Take an Aspirin a day
Stage 2 for PVD Patient starts to experience numbness and tingling, or feels like it is falling asleep.
Goal for stage 2 for PVD Get back to stage 1
Treatment for stage 2 for PVD Angiogram to decide whether to put in stent or do a bypass.
Stage 3 for PVD Infarction Stage
Treatment for stage 3 for PVD - Removal of Infarction, removal of tissue - Amputation
What two factors increase the chances of success and affect the size of the infarction. - Time - Which artery is blocked
Systolic pressure for normal blood pressure less than 120
Diastolic pressure for normal blood pressure less than 80
Systolic pressure for prehypertension 120 - 139
Diastolic pressure for prehypertension 80 - 89
Systolic pressure for hypertension 140 +
Diastolic pressure for hypertension 90 +
Secondary Hypertension chronic high blood pressure due to a complication of another condition. Can be cured with the cure of the other disease. EX= Hyperthyroidism and Kidney disease
Primary (Essential) Hypertension Chronic high blood pressure of unknown origin Can be managed but not cured.
S/S of Hypertension - Systolic greater than 140 - Diastolic greater than 90 - Has 1 sign but no symptoms
Complications of Hypertension Atherosclerosis, CAD, CVD, PVD, Heart attack, Stroke, Amputation, LCHF, Kidney damage or failure, Retina damage, Aneurysm
Treatment for Hypertension - Lifestyle changes (loose weight, Exercise, decrease salt intake) - Blood pressure medications (Vasodilaters to lower TPR, ARB are most common: Diuretics to lower blood volume)-cardiac glycosides to decrease cardiac output
What is the biggest challenge with Hypertensive patients? Convincing patient to follow treatment. Educating the patient. Because of no symptoms.
Aneurysm Localized dilation of an artery or chamber in the heart as a result of a weakness in the wall of the artery or heart. Good chance it will be fatal.
Varicose Veins An enlarged dilated superficial vein. Most common in lower expremities and esophagus. Can happen anywhere on the body.
Most common cause of varicose veins Pregnancy
Hemorrhoids Varicose veins on the surface of the rectum
Varicose veins on the surface of the esophagus - Caused by Cirrhosis of the Liver - Can be fatal
Created by: owossopatho