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Psych for AP - VIP

Very Important Psychologists from AP Psychology

Mary Ainsworth Studied attachment in infants using the "strange situation" model. Label infants "secure", "insecure" (etc.) in attachment
Solomon Asch Conducted famous conformity experiment that required subjects to match lines.
Albert Bandura Famous for the Bobo Doll experiments on observational learning & influence in the Socio-Cognitive Perspective
Alfred Binet Created first intelligence test for Parisian school children
Thomas Bouchard Studied identical twins separated at birth
Noam Chomsky Created concept of "universal grammar"
Hermann Ebbinghaus Memorized nonsense syllables in early study on human memory
Erik Erikson Known for his 8-stage theory of Psychosocial Development
Sigmund Freud Developed psychoanalysis; considered to be "father of modern psychiatry"
John Garcia studied taste aversion in rats; led to knowledge that sickness and taste preferences can be conditioned
Carol Gilligan Presented feminist critique of Kolhberg's moral development theory; believed women's moral sense guided by relationships
Harry Harlow Studied attachment in monkeys with artificial mothers
William James created Functionalist school of thought; early American psychology teacher/philosopher
Jerome Kagan Conducted longitudinal studies on temperament (infancy to adolescence)
Ancel Keys Conducted semi-starvation experiments to measure psych effects of hunger
Lawrence Kohlberg Famous for his theory of moral development in children; made use of moral dilemmas in assessment
Elizabeth Loftus Her research on memory construction and the misinformation effect created doubts about the accuracy of eye-witness testimony
Abraham Maslow Humanistic psychologist known for his "Hierarchy of Needs" and the concept of "self-actualization"
Stanley Milgram Conducted "shocking" (Ha!) experiments on obedience
Ivan Pavlov Described process of classical conditioning after famous experiments with dogs
Jean Piaget Known for his theory of cognitive development in children
Carl Rogers Developed "client-centered" therapy
Stanley Schachter Developed "Two-Factor" theory of emotion; experiments on spillover effect
B.F. Skinner Described process of operant conditioning
Edward Thorndike Famous for "law of effect" and research on cats in "puzzle boxes"
John Watson Early behaviorist; famous for the "Little Albert" experiments on fear conditioning
Benjamin Lee Whorf Famous for describing concept of "liguistic determinism"
William Wundt Conducted first psychology experiments in first psych laboratory
Philip Zimbardo Conducted Stanford Prison experiment
Hans Selye (Accidently) described General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
Karen Horney Neo-Freudian; offered feminist critique of Freud's theory
Martin Seligman Conducted experiments with dogs that led to the concept of "learned helplessness"
Fritz Perls Creator of Gestalt Therapy
Alfred Adler Neo-Freudian; introduced concept of "inferiority complex" and stressed the importance of birth order
Albert Ellis Developed "rational emotive behavior therapy" (REBT)
Aaron Beck Developed cognitive-behavior therapy
Gordon Allport Founder of Trait Theory
Phineas Gage his survival of a horrible industrial accident taught us about the role of the frontal lobes (okay, he's not really a psychologist...)
Walter Mischel offered famous critique of trait theory and its claims
David McClelland studied achievement motivation; found those with high levels are driven to master challenging tasks
Elizabeth Kubler-Ross wrote "On Death and Dying"; developed 5 stage theory of grief
Mary Whiton Calkins first female president of the APA (1905); a student of William James; denied the PhD she earned from Harvard because of her sex (later, posthumously, it was granted to her)
Charles Darwin his idea, that the genetic composition of a species can be altered through natural selection, has had a lasting impact on psychology through the evolutionary perspective
Dorothea Dix American activist who successfully pressured lawmakers to construct & fund asylums for the mentally ill
G. Stanley Hall first american to work for Wundt; • Founded the American Psychological Association (now largest organization of psychologists in the USA) and became first president
Margaret Floy Washburn First female to be awarded a PhD in psychology; 2nd president of the APA (1921)
Paul Broca the part of the brain responsible for coordinating muscles involved in speech was named for him, because he first identified it
Carl Wernicke an area of the brain (in the left temporal lobe) involved in language comprehension and expression was named for him because he discovered it
Michael Gazzaniga Conducted the "HE-ART" experiments with split brain patients
Roger Sperry like Gazzaniga, studied split brain patients; showed that left/right hemispheres have different functions
Gustav Fechner early German psychologist credited with founding psychophysics
David Hubel & Torsten Weisel two Nobel prize winning neuroscientists who demonstrated the importance of "feature detector" neurons in visual perception
Ernst Weber best known for "Weber's Law", the notion that the JND magnitude is proportional to the stimulus magnitude
Ernest Hilgard famous for his hypnosis research & the theory that a "hidden observer" theory
Robert Rescorla researched classical conditioning; found subjects learn the predictability of an event through trials (cognitive element)
Edward Tolman researched rats' use of "cognitive maps"
Wolfgang Kohler considered to be the founder of Gestalt Psychology
George A. Miller made famous the phrase
Alfred Kinsey his research described human sexual behavior and was controversial (for its methodology & findings)
Diana Baumrind her theory of parenting styles had three main types (permissive, authoratative, & authoritarian)
Lev Vygotsky founder of "Social Development Theory" (note
Konrad Lorenz won Nobel prize for research on imprinting
Carl Jung neo-Freudian who created concept of "collective unconscious" and wrote books on dream interpretation
Paul Costa & Robert McCrae creators of the "Big Five" model of personality traits
Francis Galton interested in link between heredity and intelligence; founder of the eugenics movement
Howard Gardner best known for his theory of "multiple intelligences"
Charles Spearman creator of "g-factor", or general intelligence, concept
Robert Sternberg creator of "successful intelligence" theory (3 types)
Louis Terman advocate of intelligence testing in US; developed Standford-Binet test and oversaw army's use of intelligence testing during WWI
David Weschler developer of WAIS and WISC intelligence tests
Mary Cover Jones "mother of behavior therapy"; used classical conditioning to help "Peter" overcome fear of rabbits
Joseph Wolpe described use of systematic desensitization to treat phobias
Leon Festinger described concept of cognitive dissonance
Popular Psychology sets




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