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Chapter 2

Key Concepts

This MICROBIOLOGY stack covers the first 12 slides of chapter 2 LEADING INTO the section entitled PROTEIN STRUCTURE. (blank)
Q: What four elements make up over 98% of all living matter? A: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen.
Q: Name the main types of bonds. A: Ionic, Covalent, and Hydrogen.
Q: Why are weak bonds so important in biological molecules? A: Because they often determine the most important properties of the molecules and are responsible for their proper functioning.
Q: Life is based on what? A: The bonding properties of water.
Q: How much of a cells weight is comprised of water? A: 90%
Q: What are macromolecules composed of? A: Repeating subunits consisting of small simple molecules called monomers (one exception to this is lipids... during the lecture Dr. Odhwani said lipids are NOT repeating subunits).
Q: Name the four major classes of biologically important macromolecules. A: Proteins, Polysaccharides (Carbohydrates), Lipids, and Nucleic Acids. (I know the notes say "three major classes" but it lists four).
Q: Name the monomer and polymer of carbohydrates. A: Monosaccharide is the monomer and polysaccharide is the polymer.
Q: Name the monomer and polymer of proteins. A: Amino acid is the monomer and polypeptide in the polymer.
Q: Name the monomer and polymer of DNA and RNA. A: Nucleotide is the monomer and polynucleic acid is the polymer.
Q: Are all macromolecules considered polymers? A: Yes, all macromolecules can be considered polymers.
Q: How many steps are involved in the formation of macromolecules? What are those steps? A: The formation of macromolecules is a two-step process: the first step is the synthesis of the subunit and the second step is the joining of the subunits.
Q: What are the two main processes used in the joining together of subunits? A: Dehydration Synthesis and Hydrolytic Reaction (Hydrolysis).
Q: What does a dehydration synthesis involve? A: A dehydration synthesis involves a chemical reaction in which water is removed.
Q: What does hydrolysis involve? A: Hydrolysis is the reverse of dehydration where water is added back.
Q: Does dehydration synthesis involve the release of energy or the consumption of energy? A: Energy is consumed during dehydration synthesis.
Q: Does hydrolysis involve the release of energy or the consumption of energy? A: Energy is released during hydrolysis.
Q: In regards to the function of protein, what do enzymes do? A: Enzymes catalyze all reactions.
Q: Where does protein synthesis take place? A: In ribosomes.
Q: What is the basic definition of gene regulation? A: Gene regulation is the turning on or off of genes.
Q: What makes up more than 50% of the dry weight of most cells? A: Protein.
Q: Proteins are made up of subunits called _______. A: Amino acids.
Q: The function of protein is determined by its _______. A: Shape.
Q: How many essential amino acids are there? A: There are 20 essential amio acids, although in biochem we were told there is a little known 21st amino acid.
Q: What is the basic structure of amino acids? A: Amino acids contain an amino group, an alpha carbon, a carboxyl group, and a variable R group.
Q: Many amino acids can come together to form a large protein called a _______. A: Polypeptide.
Q: Two amino acids are brought together by what type of reaction? A: A dehydration synthesis reaction.
Q: What type of bond holds amino acids together? A: Peptide bonds.
Q: A peptide bond forms between the _______ group of one amino acid and the _______ group of another amino acid. A: Between the AMINO GROUP of one amino acid and the CARBOXYL GROUP of another amino acid.
Created by: PCC Microbiology