Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Chapter 2

Key Concepts

QuestionsAnswers
This MICROBIOLOGY stack covers the first 12 slides of chapter 2 LEADING INTO the section entitled PROTEIN STRUCTURE. (blank)
Q: What four elements make up over 98% of all living matter? A: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen.
Q: Name the main types of bonds. A: Ionic, Covalent, and Hydrogen.
Q: Why are weak bonds so important in biological molecules? A: Because they often determine the most important properties of the molecules and are responsible for their proper functioning.
Q: Life is based on what? A: The bonding properties of water.
Q: How much of a cells weight is comprised of water? A: 90%
Q: What are macromolecules composed of? A: Repeating subunits consisting of small simple molecules called monomers (one exception to this is lipids... during the lecture Dr. Odhwani said lipids are NOT repeating subunits).
Q: Name the four major classes of biologically important macromolecules. A: Proteins, Polysaccharides (Carbohydrates), Lipids, and Nucleic Acids. (I know the notes say "three major classes" but it lists four).
Q: Name the monomer and polymer of carbohydrates. A: Monosaccharide is the monomer and polysaccharide is the polymer.
Q: Name the monomer and polymer of proteins. A: Amino acid is the monomer and polypeptide in the polymer.
Q: Name the monomer and polymer of DNA and RNA. A: Nucleotide is the monomer and polynucleic acid is the polymer.
Q: Are all macromolecules considered polymers? A: Yes, all macromolecules can be considered polymers.
Q: How many steps are involved in the formation of macromolecules? What are those steps? A: The formation of macromolecules is a two-step process: the first step is the synthesis of the subunit and the second step is the joining of the subunits.
Q: What are the two main processes used in the joining together of subunits? A: Dehydration Synthesis and Hydrolytic Reaction (Hydrolysis).
Q: What does a dehydration synthesis involve? A: A dehydration synthesis involves a chemical reaction in which water is removed.
Q: What does hydrolysis involve? A: Hydrolysis is the reverse of dehydration where water is added back.
Q: Does dehydration synthesis involve the release of energy or the consumption of energy? A: Energy is consumed during dehydration synthesis.
Q: Does hydrolysis involve the release of energy or the consumption of energy? A: Energy is released during hydrolysis.
Q: In regards to the function of protein, what do enzymes do? A: Enzymes catalyze all reactions.
Q: Where does protein synthesis take place? A: In ribosomes.
Q: What is the basic definition of gene regulation? A: Gene regulation is the turning on or off of genes.
Q: What makes up more than 50% of the dry weight of most cells? A: Protein.
Q: Proteins are made up of subunits called _______. A: Amino acids.
Q: The function of protein is determined by its _______. A: Shape.
Q: How many essential amino acids are there? A: There are 20 essential amio acids, although in biochem we were told there is a little known 21st amino acid.
Q: What is the basic structure of amino acids? A: Amino acids contain an amino group, an alpha carbon, a carboxyl group, and a variable R group.
Q: Many amino acids can come together to form a large protein called a _______. A: Polypeptide.
Q: Two amino acids are brought together by what type of reaction? A: A dehydration synthesis reaction.
Q: What type of bond holds amino acids together? A: Peptide bonds.
Q: A peptide bond forms between the _______ group of one amino acid and the _______ group of another amino acid. A: Between the AMINO GROUP of one amino acid and the CARBOXYL GROUP of another amino acid.
Created by: PCC Microbiology