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Bio 211 Final Pt 3

Name 4 forms of immunity Innate, Adaptive,Active,Passive
What are the properties of immunity? Specifity, Versatility,memory,tolerance
What is the primary function of a lymph node? are components of the lymphatic system. Lymph nodes act as filters, with an internal honeycomb of connective tissue filled with lymphocytes that collect and destroy bacteria and viruses
Describe the process of lymphocyte production. Involves Red bone marrow,thymus, peripheral lymphoid tissue
What's the lymphatic system? The lymphatic system helps to maintain fluid balance, defend the body against disease and absorb liquids from the intestine and transport them to the blood . The Lymphatic System collects and returns fluid that leaks from blood vessels.
What are the 3 classes of lymphocytes that are in blood? T cells, B cells and natural killer (NK) cells
What are the 7 major catagories of nonspecific lymphatic defenses? .Barricades b.Phagocytes c.Inflammatory response d.Natural killer cells e.Compliment system is a group of plasma proteins f.Interferons interfere with viral replication. g.Fever raises body temperature to become less hospitable to invaders.
What is the difference between nonspecific and specific defenses? Non- specific defenses attack any foreign invaders by physical and chemical barriers first and then internally. Specific defenses are our immune system and the immune response that targets specific invaders
What are the effects of complement activation? 1.Opsonization - enhancing phagocytosis of antigens 2.Chemotaxis - attracting macrophages and neutrophils 3.Cell Lysis - rupturing membranes of foreign cells 4.Clumping of antigen-bearing agents
What are macrophages responsible for? Macrophage is a white blood cell, produced by Monocytes. Monocytes and Macrophages are both Phagocytes. These work as a part of the human immune system.
What triggers an immune response? The immune system protects the body from potentially harmful substances by recognizing and responding to antigens.
How do vaccines work? Vaccines work by activating the immune system in various ways to allow specific immune cells to gain "memory". With this memory, the immune system produces a more effective response to the pathogen on the second time around
What is AIDS? Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is a disease caused by a virus called HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus).
Why is it more desirable to breathe in through the nasal cavity rather than the mouth? 1- The tiny capillaries in the nose warms up air before going in to the lungs. 2- The nose hair traps any unwanted bodies and dust
What are the most important respiratory muscles? the diaphragm and the external and internal costal muscles
What are basic functions of the respiratory system? 1. -Gas exchange. Regulation of blood pH.Voice production.Olfaction.Innate immunity
What happens to the respiratory system at birth? Increasing uptake of oxygen by lungs (first and subsequent breaths) induces a vasoconstriction of ductus venosus and ductus arteriosis
What is a respiratory cycle? consists of one inspiration followed by one expiration. The volume of air that enters or leaves during a single respiratory cycle is called the tidal volume.
What are 3 steps of external respiration? External respiration consist in three steps: 1.Pulmonary ventilation (inhalation and exhalation.) 2.Gas diffusion. 3.Transport of Oxygen (O2) and Carbon dioxide (CO2
What are the differences in the right and left lung? The right lung, which is heavier than the left, is also shorter (the right dome of the diaphragm being higher) and wider (the heart bulging more to the left).
What are some of the protective reflexes of the respiratory system? Examples of protective reflexes include sneezing, coughing, and laryngeal spasms
Where does Gas exchange occur? The exchange of gases (O2 & CO2) between the alveoli & the blood occurs by simple diffusion
What are the functions of saliva? •Lubrication and binding•Solubilises dry food:•Initiates starch digestion•Provides alkaline buffering and fluid
Name the major functions of the stomache? The functions of a stomach is to hold, digest, expell and process food for digestion as it empties into the small intestine.
What is peristalsis? The involuntary constriction and relaxation of the muscles of the intestine or another canal, creating wavelike movements that push the contents of the canal forward
What is the name of contractions that mix digestive contents with intestinal secretions? Digestive motility
Functions of the digestive system Four functions Motility Secretion Digestion Absorption
What are the parts of the digestive system from beginning to end? Digestive tract Continuous from mouth to anus Consists of Mouth Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Small intestine Duodenum Jejunum Ileum Large intestine Cecum Appendix Colon Rectum Anus
What parts of the urinary system are responsible for storage, transport, and elimination of urine? ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
Name the structure that produces urine. nephronsThe nephron consists of a filtering component, complete with a blood supply, and a tube that forms urine
What are the six steps taken by kidneys to filter liquids?
What are the 3 layers that stabilize and protect the kidneys? (1) RENAL capsule (2) ADIPOSE capsule (3) renal FASCIA
The sympathetic innervation of the kidneys does what two things?
The glomerular capillaries are what kind of capillaries? Fenestrated
What are major diseases of urinary system? Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
What changes occur in circulating hormone levels accompany the ovarian cycle? These are the trigger changes. They c The two major hormones involved are estrogen and progesterone. The levels of these hormones change during the different phases of the cycle as shown in the diagram
Components of Male reproductive system Penis,Scrotum,Testicles (testes)
Components of female reproductive system Vagina,Uterus (womb): ,Ovaries,Fallopian tubes
What structure holds placenta and baby during pregnancy? uterus
The corpus luteum is located on what structure? ovary
The prostate gland encircles what structure? encircles the urethra
What is Cryptorchidism? is the absence of one or both testes from the scrotum
What is Mitosis? Mitosis produces two daughter cells that are identical to the parent cell. If the parent cell is haploid (N), then the daughter cells will be haploid. If the parent cell is diploid, the daughter cells will also be diploid.
What is meiosis? Meiosis produces daughter cells that have one half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell.
What is oogenesis? production of ova. The development of a diploid cell into a haploid ovum or egg cell.
What is the uterine cycle? The changes that occur in the uterus during the reproductive cycle of the human female; also called the menstrual cycle
What happens to the reproductive system as we age? Female woman, aging changes involve hormone levels, physical changes in the woman's entire reproductive tract, and psychological changes.
What happens to the reproductive system as we age? Male , the decline in reproductive ability is more gradual, the rate of sperm production slows
Created by: shalli74



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