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INC1 Organisms

Atomic number The number that designates the identity of an element, which is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom; in a neutral atom, the atomic number is also the number of electrons in the atom.
Atomic orbital A position in an atom in which an electron has a 90 percent chance of being located.
Atomic spectrum The pattern of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation emitted by the atoms of an element, considered to be the element’s “fingerprint.”
Atomic symbol An abbreviation for an element or atom.
ATP Adenosine triphosphate, the basic unit of energy used in cellular processes.
Autotrophs Living organisms that make their own food and organic materials.
Axon The part of a neuron that transmits information to other neurons or target cells.
B cells Cells of the acquired immune system that target pathogens in bodily fluids.
Bacteria One of the three domains of life, consisting of a wide range of generally single-celled prokaryotic organisms.
Base A substance that accepts hydrogen ions.
Basic research Research dedicated to the discovery of the fundamental workings of nature.
Basic solution A solution in which the hydroxide ion concentration is higher than the hydronium ion concentration.
Beta particle An electron (or positron) emitted during the radioactive decay of certain nuclei.
Big Bang The primordial explosion of space at the beginning of time.
Binary stars A pair of stars that orbit about a common center.
Biogeochemical cycles The movement of substances such as water, carbon, and nitrogen between the tissues of living organisms and the abiotic world.
Biology The study of life and living organisms.
Biomass The amount of organic matter present in an ecosystem.
Biomes Major types of terrestrial ecosystems, as classified by their plant life, including tropical forest, temperate forest, coniferous forest, tundra, savanna, temperate grassland, chaparral, and desert.
Biotic Pertaining to living organisms.
Black hole The remains of a giant star that has collapsed upon itself, so dense, and with a gravitational field so intense, that light itself cannot escape from it.
Boiling Evaporation in which bubbles form beneath the liquid surface.
Capillaries Small blood vessels from which materials are exchanged with body tissues.
Carbohydrates Sugars, starches, and other organic molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms.
Carboxylic acid An organic molecule containing a carbonyl group in which the carbon is bonded to a hydroxyl group.
Carrying capacity The maximum number of individuals or maximum population density that a habitat can support.
Catalyst A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction by lowering its activation energy.
Celestial sphere An imaginary sphere surrounding the earth to which the stars are attached.
Cell membrane The membrane that separates the inside of the cell from the outside.
Cells The units that make up all living organisms (except viruses).
Cellular respiration The oxygen-using process of breaking down glucose to obtain ATP.
Cenozoic era The time of “recent life,” from 65 million years ago to the present.
Central nervous system Consists of the brain and spinal cord.
Centripetal force Any force that is directed at right angles to the path of a moving object and tends to produce circular motion.
Chain reaction A self-sustaining reaction in which the products of one reaction event stimulate further reaction events.
Chemical bond The attraction between two atoms that holds them together in a compound.
Chemical change During this kind of change, atoms in a substance are rearranged to give a new substance having a new chemical identity.
Chemical equation A representation of a chemical reaction.
Chemical formula A notation used to indicate the composition of a compound, consisting of the atomic symbols for the different elements of the compound and numerical subscripts indicating the ratio in which the atoms combine.
Chemical properties A property that relates to how a substance changes its chemical identity.
Chemical reaction A rearrangement of atoms so that one or more new compounds are formed from preexisting compounds or elements.
Chemistry The study of matter and the transformations it can undergo.
Chemoautotrophs Autotrophs that use energy from inorganic chemicals to make their food and organic materials.
Chemoreception A form of sensing in which chemicals bind to receptors on chemosensory cells, causing ion channels to open and action potentials to happen.
Chlorophyll The green pigment in plant chloroplasts that absorbs light during the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis.
Chloroplasts The organelles in plant cells where photosynthesis occurs.
Chromosome The DNA-containing structures found in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.
Clade A group of species that includes an ancestor and all its descendants.
Climate The general pattern of weather that occurs in a region over a period of years.
Cladogram A diagram that shows the history of speciation events among a group of organisms.
Codominance A situation in which the combination of two alleles in a heterozygote results in both traits being expressed.
Codon A sequence of three nucleotides in an mRNA molecule that codes for a single amino acid.
Coefficient A number used in a chemical equation to indicate either the number of atoms/molecules or the number of moles of a reactant or product.
Cold front A front along which a cold air mass moves under and displaces a warm air mass.
Combustion An exothermic oxidation–reduction reaction between a nonmetallic material and molecular oxygen.
Comet A body composed of ice and dust that orbits the Sun, usually in a very eccentric orbit, and that casts a luminous tail when it is close to the Sun
Community All the organisms that live within a given area.
Compound A material in which atoms of different elements are bonded to one another.
Concentration A quantitative measure of the amount of solute in a solution.
Conceptual model A representation of a system that helps in making predictions about how the system behaves.
Condensation A transformation from a gas to a liquid.
Conduction The transfer of thermal energy by molecular and electronic collisions within a substance (especially a solid).
Conductor Any material having free charged particles that easily flow through it when an electric force acts on them.
Conformation One of the possible spatial orientations of a molecule.
Conservation of energy In the absence of external work input or output, the energy of a system remains unchanged. Energy cannot be created or destroyed.
Conservation of energy and machines The work output of any machine cannot exceed the work input. In an ideal machine, where no energy is transformed into heat, Work input = work output and (Fd)input = (Fd)output.
Conservation of momentum In the absence of an external force, the momentum of a system remains unchanged. Hence, the momentum before an event involving only internal forces is equal to the momentum after the event: mv (before event) = mv (after event).
Consumer An organism that obtains food by eating other organisms.
Continental drift The hypothesis that continents are in motion and travel over the face of the earth rather than remain fixed in one location.
Continental margin A transition zone between dry land and the ocean bottom.
Control A test that excludes the variable being investigated in a scientific experiment.
Convection The transfer of thermal energy in a gas or liquid by means of currents in the heated fluid. The fluid flows, carrying energy with it.
Convergent plate boundary A place where neighboring plates move toward one another; old lithosphere is destroyed here.
Core The central, metallic spherical layer of the earth, consisting of a solid inner part and liquid outer part.
Coriolis effect The tendency for moving bodies not attached to the earth (such as air molecules) to turn in their path relative to Earth’s surface.
Corrosion The deterioration of a metal, typically caused by atmospheric oxygen.
Cosmology The study of the origin and structure of the physical universe.
Coulomb The SI unit of electrical charge. One coulomb (symbol C) is equal in magnitude to the total charge of 6.25 x 1018 electrons.
Coulomb’s Law The relationship among force, charge, and distance: F = k q1q2/d2. If the charges are alike in sign, the force is repelling; if the charges are unlike, the force is attractive.
Covalent bond A chemical bond in which atoms are held together by their mutual attraction for two electrons they share.
Critical mass The minimum mass of fissionable material in a reactor or nuclear bomb that will sustain a chain reaction.
Cross-cutting A relative dating principle stating that, where an igneous intrusion or fault cuts through other rocks, the intrusion or fault is younger than the rock it cuts.
Crust The rocky surface layer of the earth.
Crystalline structure A group of atoms arranged in an orderly, repeating geometric structure.
Crystallization The process of forming a crystalline structure during solidification.
Cyclone An area of low pressure around which winds flow.
Cytoplasm The portion of the cell outside the nucleus.
Delta An accumulation of sediment where a stream enters a lake or ocean.
Dendrites The parts of a neuron that receive information from other cells, either sensory cells or other neurons.
Deposition The process of eroded particles coming to rest at a particular location.
Dew point The temperature at which saturation is reached and condensation occurs.
Differentiation The process by which gravity separates materials of different densities.
Diffraction Any bending of light by means other than reflection and refraction.
Diffusion The tendency for molecules to move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
Digestion The process through which food is broken down into organic molecules that can be absorbed and used by the body.
Dipole A separation of charge that occurs in a chemical bond because of differences in the electronegativities of the bonded atoms.
Direct current (DC) An electric current flowing in one direction only.
Dispersion The separation of light into colors arranged by frequency.
Divergent plate boundary A place where neighboring plates move away from one another; new lithosphere is created here.
Divide Lines that trace the highest ground between streams.
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid, the cell’s genetic material, a double stranded molecule consisting of sugar-phosphate backbones attached by pairs of matched nitrogenous bases; in the form of a double helix.
Dominant The allele that is expressed in a heterozygote.
Doppler effect The change in frequency of a wave due to the motion of the source (or due to the motion of the receiver).
Ecliptic The plane of the Earth’s orbit around the Sun.
Ecological succession Changes in the species composition of an ecosystem following a disturbance.
Ecology The study of how organisms interact with their environments.
Ecosystem All the organisms that live within a given area and all the abiotic features of their environment.
Ectotherms Organisms that regulate their body temperature behaviorally, by seeking either warm or cool areas.
Efficiency The percentage of the work put into a machine that is converted into useful work output. (More generally, efficiency is useful energy output divided by total energy input.)
Elastic collision A collision in which colliding objects rebound without lasting deformation or the generation of heat.
Electric current The flow of electric charge that transports energy from one place to another. It is measured in amperes, where 1 A is the flow of 6.25 x 1018 electrons per second, or 1 coulomb per second.
Electric field Defined as force per unit charge, it can be considered to be an energetic “aura” surrounding charged objects. About a charged point, the field decreases with distance according to the inverse-square law, like a gravitational field. Between oppositely char
Electric potential (voltage) The electric potential energy per amount of charge, measured I n volts, and often called voltage: Voltage = electric energy/amount of charge
Electric potential energy The energy a charge possesses by virtue of its location in a magnetic field.
Electric power The rate of energy transfer, or rate of doing work; the amount of energy per unit time, which can be measured by the product of current and voltage: Power = current x voltage. It is measured in watts (or kilowatts).
Electric resistance The property of a material that resists the flow of electric current through it. It is measured in ohms (O).
Electrically polarized Term applied to an atom or molecule in which the charges are aligned so that one side has a slight excess of negative charge.
Electromagnet A magnet whose field is produced by an electric current. It is usually in the form of a wire coil with a piece of iron inside the coil.
Electromagnetic induction The induction of voltage when a magnetic field changes with time.
Electromagnetic spectrum A continuous range of electromagnetic waves extending from radio waves to gamma rays.
Electromagnetic wave A wave of energy produced when an electric charge accelerates.
Electron A negatively charged particle in an atom.
Electron-dot structure A shorthand notation of the shell model of the atom in which valence electrons are shown around an atomic symbol.
Electronegativity The ability of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons to itself when bonded to another atom.
Electrostatics The study of electric charge at rest (not in motion, as in electric currents).
Element Any material that is made up of only one type of atom.
Elemental formula A notation that uses the atomic symbol and (sometimes) a numerical subscript to denote how atoms are bonded in an element.
Ellipse The sum of the distances from any point on the path to two points called foci is a constant; also the oval path followed by a satellite.
Elliptical galaxy A galaxy that is round or elliptical in outline. It has little gas and dust, no disk or spiral arms, and few hot, bright stars.
Endoskeleton An internal skeleton, such as that found in echinoderms and chordates.
Endosymbiotic theory The theory that the mitochondria and chloroplasts of eukaryotic cells evolved from prokaryotes living inside the earliest eukaryotic cells.
Endotherms Organisms that rely on food metabolism to maintain body temperature
Energy The property of a system that enables it to do work.
Entropy The term used to describe the idea that energy has a natural tendency to disperse. Equals the total amount of energy in a given amount of substance divided by the substance’s absolute temperature.
Enzyme A protein that catalyzes a chemical reaction in a living organism.
Equilibrium rule The vector sum of forces acting on a nonaccelerating object equals zero: SF = 0.
Erosion The process by which weathered particles are removed and transported by a stream, glacier, wind, or other mobile agent.
Escape speed The speed that a projectile, space probe, or similar object must reach in order to escape the gravitational influence of the earth or of another celestial body to which it is attracted.
Ester An organic molecule containing a carbonyl group in which the carbon is bonded to one carbon atom and one oxygen atom bonded to another carbon atom.
Ether An organic molecule containing an oxygen atom bonded to two carbon atoms.
Eukaryotes Organisms whose cells have a nucleus and organelles, including protists, animals, plants, and fungi.
Evaporation A transformation from a liquid to a gas.
Evolution Heritable changes in living organisms over time—or, as Darwin put it, “descent with modification.”
Exons Portions of the mRNA transcript that contribute to building the protein.
Exoskeleton An external skeleton, such as that found in arthropods.
Exponential growth A model of population growth in which growth that characterizes populations with unlimited resources.
Extrusive igneous rock Igneous rock that forms at Earth’s surface.
Faraday’s law An electric field is induced in any region of space in which a magnetic field is changing with time. The magnitude of the induced electric field is proportional to the rate at which the field changes. The direction of the induced magnetic field is at righ
Fact A phenomenon about which competent observers can agree.
Fault A break in a rock along which movement has occurred.
Fault-block mountain Mountains that form from tension and that have at least one side bounded by a normal fault.
Faunal succession A relative dating principle stating that fossil organisms succeed one another in a definite, irreversible, determinable order.
Fermentation The anaerobic breakdown of glucose that results in the production of ethanol and carbon dioxide gas (alcoholic fermentation) or lactic acid (lactic acid fermentation).
First law of thermodynamics A restatement of the law of energy conservation, usually as it applies to systems involving changes in temperature: Whenever heat flows into or out of a system, the gain or loss of thermal energy equals the amount of heat transferred.
Fitness The number of offspring an organism produces in its lifetime compared to other organisms in the population.
Flower The reproductive structure of flowering plants, which may include stamens (male reproductive structures) and/or carpels (female reproductive structures), as well as petals.
Fold A mountain that is built up of folding on a grand scale.
Folded mountain Mountains that feature extensive folding of rock layers .
Force Simply stated, a push or pull.
Force pair The action-and-reaction pair of forces that constitute an interaction.
Force vector An arrow drawn to scale so that its length represents the magnitude of a force and its direction represents the direction of the force.
Forced vibration The setting up of vibrations in an object by a vibrating source.
Free fall Motion under the influence of gravitational pull only.
Created by: xcmoney23