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Bio 211 Final-pt.2

What is Thalassemia? Thalassemia is an inherited disorder that affects the production of normal hemoglobin (a type of iron-rich protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to the tissues of the body).
What is Sickle Cell Anemia? Sickle-cell disease- an autosomal recessive genetic blood disorder with overdominance, characterized by red blood cells that assume an abnormal, rigid, sickle shape. Sickling decreases the cells' flexibility and results in a risk of various complications
List 4 Characteristics of circulating WBCs. 1.Capable of Amoeboid movement 2.Can Migrate out of bloodstream 3.Attracted to specific Chemical stimuli 4.Capable of Phagocytosis
List 4 Blood types. Which surface antigen does each possess? All humans and many other primates can be typed for the ABO blood group. There are four principal types: A, B, AB, and O
Which blood type is the universal donar? Type O– blood is considered the “universal donor” because it can be donated to people of any blood type
Which blood typ is the universal recipient? Answer: A universal recipient is a person with the AB blood type
What are the components of blood? Plasma, RBC, WBC, Platelets
What is the composition of blood? Plasma, RBC, WBC, Platelets
How does the shape of RBCs effect there function? Biconcave disks- Large surface area, Form stacks like dinner plates that smooth the flow,Enabls RBCs to bend and flex
What are the 3 primary classes of plasma proteins? albumins,globulins,fibrogen
What are the functions of Blood? Transports gases,nutrients, hormones and waste,Regulation of PH, restriction of fluid loss at injury site,Defense against toxins and pathogens.
What are 3 phases of hemostasis? Vascular spasm,Platelet Plug,Blood Clot
What is Coronary Artery disease? Heart disease is a result of plaque buildup in your coronary arteries -- a condition called atherosclerosis -- that leads to blockages
Blood path through the heart R. atrium via inferior&superior vena cava then tricuspid valve,R.ventricle, pulmonary semilunar valve,pulmonary artery, lungs, pulmonary veins. into the left atrium. thru bicuspid valve into left ventricle. thru aortic semilunar valve to the aorta
Name the elements that make up the conducting systems. SA NODE -> ATRIOVENTRICULAR (AV) NODE -> ATRIOVENTRICULAR (AV) BUNDLE -> BUNDLE BRANCHES -> PURKINJE FIBERS
Describe SA Node The SA Node is a group of special cardiac cells located in the right atria. It usually works as the natural main pacemaker of the heart, which usually generates the impulse activating the heart to contract. When the SA Node contracts, it releases a small
Describe AV Node The AV Node is the pacemaker which normally associates the conduction pathways of the atrias and the ventricles
AV Bundles bundle of modified heart muscle that transmits the cardiac impulse from the atrioventricular node to the ventricles causing them to contract
PURKINJE FIBERS •Purkinje fibers are fiber branches that extend from the atrioventricular bundle. Function: •Relays cardiac impulses to the ventricular cells causing the ventricles to contract.
arteriosclerosis Hardening of the arteries
Explain the processes that occur during Diastole and systole. The ventricles of heart have 2 states: systole (contraction),diastole (relaxation). During diastole blood fills the ventricles and during systole the blood is pushed out of the heart into the arteries.
What opening permits blood flow from the right atrium to left atrium during fetal development? The foramen ovale permits blood flow from the right atrium to the left atrium while the lungs are developing before birth. At birth, the foramen ovale closes, and the opening will be permanently sealed off within three months of delivery.
Functions of 4 heart chambers. two ventricles (right and left) are muscular chambers that propel the blood out of the heart. The two atria hold the blood returning to the heart, and at just the right moment empty into the right and left ventricles.
What are the sounds a heart makes? "lubb it is caused by vibration of the AV valves and surrounding fluid as the valves close at the begining of ventricular systole "dub" results from the closure of the aortic and pulmonary semilunar valves at the begining of ventricle diastole.
What types of arteries carry large volumes of blood away from the heart? Pulmonary Aretries, Systemic Arteries
What is the purpose of capillary beds? The "capillary bed" is an interweaving network of capillaries supplying an organ. The more metabolically active the cells, the more capillaries they will require to supply nutrients and carry away waste products.
What is the Pulmonary circuit? The pulmonary circuit is powered by the right side of the heart. Its main function is to pump deoxygenated blood which has returned to the heart from the body to the lungs, then back to the heart.
What is the systemic circuit? In the systemic circuit, blood leaves the heart through the aorta, goes to all the organs of the body through the systemic arteries, and then returns to the heart through the systemic veins
What are the individual layers of vessel wall? tunica interna,tunica media,tunica externa
What does tunica Interna consist of? is the innermost layer. It contains the endothelium which is a continuation of the endocardial lining of the heart. The endothelium contains simple squamous epithelial cells that form a flat slick surface inside the blood vessels which minimizes frictio
What does tunica media consist of? middle layer and consists circularly arranged smooth muscle cells and sheets of elastin
What does tunica externa consist of? is the outermost layer and is composed largely of collagen fibers that protect and reinforce the blood vessel and anchor it to surrounding structures
Created by: shalli74



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