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Mammographic Technique and Image Evaluation

Which of the following statements is (are) true? -Compression increases subject contrast by reducing the thickness of the penetrated tissue -Compression increases the uniformity of the image-making diagnosis easier.
The compression force should not exceed ___ on the initial power drive (automatic) mode. 45 lbs
In assessing the degree of compression for any one patient, the mammography should take into consideration -the maximum to which the patient's breast can actually be compressed -the amount of compression the patient can tolerate
Manual compression in mammography depends on breast size and the patient's pain tolerance
Some considerations that could be given to women with painful breasts include -having the patient take ibuprofen prior to the mammogram -scheduling the mammogram just after the menstrual cycle -explaining, before the examination, the importance of compression
Compression will do all of the following except decrease spatial resolution
Compression will -bring tissue closer to the IR -reduce patient dose -improve image subject contrast
Compression reduces radiation to the breast by decreasing breast thickness
What principle does compression use to visualize the borders of circumscribed lesions? -It brings the lesion closer to the image receptor. -It spreads apart overlapping tissue. -It separates superimposed areas of glandular tissue.
Ideally, breast compression is maximized when -accompanied by a thorough explanation to increase patient cooperation -the patient recognizes the advantage of compression in reducing radiation dose
Patients who are allowed to play an active role in applying the compression are usually -more likely to tolerate the compression -more relaxed during the compression
Magnification can be used to assess the margins of a lesion
With calcification, magnification can be used to assess -the number -morphology -distribution
In general, greater magnification will require the use of a smaller focal spot
A grid is not necessary during magnification because the large OID produces the same effect as a grid
The air gap in magnification increases subject contrast by reducing scatter
If the magnification mammography is performed without a small focal spot, the resulting image will be magnified and blurred
At higher magnification factors there is -higher skin dose -decreases source-to-object distance (SOD)
Magnification is beneficial in all of the following situations except routine imaging
Magnification is beneficial in what situations -imaging the surgical site of a patient with a lumpectomy -imaging a specimen radiograph -evaluating microcalcifications in a lesion
Using a small focal spot size is recommended for magnification to reduce the resultant loss of image detail
The greatest disadvantage of magnification is increased patient dose
Optical densities less than 1.0 in the dense glandular tissue of the breast is considered a/an underexposure
In conventional imaging, some causes of underexposure include: -processing deficiencies -inadequate compression -improper AEC setting
To select a 12% increase in mAs before exposure, the mammographer could use the density compensation circuit
In conventional imaging, the leading cause of false-negative mammograms in dense breast tissue is underexposure
In conventional imaging, overexposure is sometimes called the recoverable error because high illumination and masking can overcome it
Increased kVp during mammography is sometimes necessary to penetrate dense fibroglandular tissue. Increased kVp, however, generally causes decreased subject contrast
Rhodium is not used as the primary anode material when imaging thinner breast because the higher energy of the rhodium beam is unsuitable for thinner breast
If the backup time stops a breast exposure, the mammographer can repeat the radiograph using a higher kVp setting
The type of x-rays created from displacement of K-shell-binding electrons in the molybdenum atom are called characteristic radiation
The function of the filter in mammography is to remove -low-energy x-rays not needed to produce the breast image -high-energy x-rays that cause a reduction of subject contrast -low-energy x-rays that increase patient dose
If the AEC cell is placed over an area of adipose tissue on a breast with a mixture of adipose and glandular tissue, the areas of glandular tissue will be underexposed
Causes of poor subject contrast include all of the following except lower kVp
Causes of poor subject contrast include: -inadequate exposure -inadequate compression -failure to use a grid
The use of low kVp and high mAs will serve to reduce radiographic noise and increase subject contrast
A highly recommended labeling that is not required by the MQSA is flash card identification system
A highly recommended labeling that is required by the MQSA is -technologist/mammographer identification -date stickers -technical factors
Lack of breast compression is most likely to cause motion unsharpness
Increasing the kVp by two points will reduce the exposure time by half
The mammographer can differentiate motion unsharpness from screen unsharpness because screen unsharpness is generally localized to a small area
Increasing the kVp will influence the -penetrating power of the beam -subject contrast and exposure latitude
The last degree of compression should be applied using manual compression
Anatomic parts with low subject contract will have very little difference in x-ray absorption
Created by: Raiderette209