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RAD 160 Skull

QuestionAnswer
How many bones make up the cranium? 8
The cranial bones are ridgedly jointed together by articulations called? sutures
Which skull suture is found between the frontal and parietal bones? coronal
The zygomatic arches are part of which cranial bone? temporal
Which bone in the skull contains the auditory organs and organs of hearing? temporal
The largest and most dense bone in the face is? mandible
Which skull type is narrow from side to side? dolichocephalic
Which is located in the middle ear? cochlea, bony labyrinth, tympanic membrane, EAM tympanic membrane
Which is located in the internal ear? concha, auditory tube, tympanic membrane, semicircular canals semicircular canals
Which should be superimposed on a lateral skull projection? 1) orbital roofs 2) EAM 3) TMJs 1,2 & 3
Which method of examining the skull demonstrates petrous ridges in the orbits, ethmoid and frontal sinuses, and crista galli? Caldwell
What line is perpendicular to the plane of the IR for Caldwell projection of skull? OML
If a patient cannot be prone for PA axial (Caldwell) of skull, what CR angle could be used for the AP projection? 15 cephalad
What line is perpendicular to the IR for the AP axial (Towne) projection? OML or IOML
If the IOML is perpendicular to the IR for AP axial (Towne), how much should the CR be angled? 37 degrees
What is demonstrated within foramen magnum during AP axial (Towne)? dorsum sellae and posterior clinoid processes
What is the CR angulation for demonstration of entire foramen magnum during AP axial (Towne)? 40-60 caudad
Which methods will clearly demonstrate petrous ridges, foramen magnum, dorsum sellae, and posterior clinoid processes? 1) Haas 2) Towne 3) Schuller 1 & 2
What is the average CR angle for PA axial (Haas) of the skull? 25 cephalad
Which line should be parallel to the IR for the SMV? IOML
In what projection are mastoid processes, sphenoid sinuses and carotid canals clearly demonstrated? SMV
What bones make up the calvarium? frontal, 2 parietals, occipital
The 6 areas of incomplete ossification in a newborn skull are called? fontanels
The opening into the apex of the orbit for transmission of optic nerve and opthalmic artery is? optic canal
Which foramen lie in the sphenoid bone? 1) optic foramen 2) jugular foramen 3) foramina rotundum 1 & 3
What are the names of the 2 large openings at the base of the anterior occipital bone for blood vessels and nerves? jugular foramen
Which facial bone contains a foramen through which the tear duct passes? lacrimal bone
Which 2 bones form the roof of the mouth? maxillae and palatine
Which parts of the patient's face touch the IR for the PA axial (Caldwell)? forehead and nose
What type of joint is the TMJ? synovial - hinge & gliding
Which cranial bone contains the sella turcica? sphenoid
For the lateral projection of facial bones, the CR will enter where? halfway between outer canthus and EAM
What is another name for the parietoacanthial projection of facial bones? Waters view
For the Waters view, the OML should be placed at what angle to the IR? 37
The parietoacanthial projection of facial bones is often modified so there is less angulation of the facial bones. For this modification, the OML is adjusted to what degree? 55
What positioning line is perpendicular to the IR for the acantioparietal (reverse Waters) of facial bones? MML
Which is true regarding the lateral projection of nasal bones? 1) occlusal IR may be used 2) both sides are done for comparison 3) the IPL is perpendicular to the tabletop 1,2 & 3
On which projections will both zygomatic arches be demonstrated? 1) tangential 2) SMV 3) AP axial 2 & 3
For the tangential projection of zygomatic arches, the head is positioned so MSP is? 15 degrees toward side being examined
For the tangential projection of zygomatic arches, the top of the head is tilted how? 15 degrees away from side being examined
For the tangential projection of the zygomatic arches, the CR is perpendicular to what line? IOML
What is the CR angulation for AP axial of zygomatic arches? 30 degrees caudad
What is centered to the IR for PA projection of mandibular rami? tip of nose
What is the CR angulation for axiolateral oblique of mandible? 25 cephalad
What is the CR angulation for axiolateral oblique of TMJs? 15 caudad
At what level is the CR for the tangential zygomatic arches? 1" posterior to outer canthus
Which projections demonstrate ethmoidal sinuses? lateral, SMV, PA axial (Caldwell)
Which sinuses are developed at birth and visible radiographically? maxillary
Where are the petrous ridges on a parietoacanthial (Waters) radiograph? inferior to the floor of the maxillary sinuses
The largest sinus the? maxillary
Which sinus is directly below the sella turcica? sphenoidal
Which sinus group is between the vertical plates of the frontal bone? frontal
Which sinus group is within the lateral masses of labyrinths? ethmoidal
When performing sinus x-rays the patient must be upright to _____. demonstrate air/fluid levels
For lateral paranasal sinuses, where is the CR directed? 1" posterior to outer canthus
Which projection best demonstrates frontal sinuses? PA axial (Caldwell)
Which sinus group is projected through the open mouth in the open mouth Waters method? sphenoidal
For the open-mouth Waters method, the CR should exit where? acanthion or open mouth
Which sinus is immediately below the sella turcica? sphenoidal
What should be clearly demonstrated on lateral projection of paranasal sinuses? 1) all 4 sinus groups 2) superimposed orbital roofs 3) superimposed mandibular rami 1,2 & 3
Which projections best demonstrate frontal and anterior ethmoidal sinuses? 1) PA 2) Waters 3) Caldwell 3
What is projected below the maxillary sinuses for the Waters method? petrous ridges
The Waters method of the sinuses requires OML is placed how many degrees from the plane of the IR? 37
What projection best demonstrates the maxillary sinuses? Waters view
To demonstrate ethmoidal and sphenoidal sinuses in SMV, which must occur? 1) patient is recumbent 2) IOML parallel to IR 3) CR perpendicular to IOML and horizontal 2 & 3
At which level should the CR enter the base of the skull for SMV of sinuses? 3/4" anterior to EAM
Which projections demonstrate ethmoidal sinuses? 1) Lateral 2) Caldwell 3) SMV 1,2 & 3
The respiration phase for all facial bone and sinus projections? suspended
Where is the IR centered for Waters projection of sinuses? acanthion
How is the CR directed for the Caldwell projection of sinuses? 15 degrees caudad
What line is horizontal during lateral projection of sinuses? IOML
Which foramina are demonstrated in the orbit on a Waters image? rotundum
What are positioning lines in reference to IR for Lateral skull? IPL perpendicular, IOML parallel to transverse axis
Where is CR directed for Lateral skull? 2" above EAM
Where is IR centered for PA skull? nasion
What is positioning line in reference to IR for PA skull? OML perpendicular
How and where is CR directed for PA axial (Caldwell) skull? 15 caudad, exiting nasion
Where should the CR enter for SMV skull? on MSP of throat between angles of mandible, passing 3/4" anterior to EAM
Which foramina are best demonstrated in SMV skull? ovale and spinosum
How and where should CR be directed for lateral facial bones? perpendicular to lateral surface of zygoma, entering between outer canthus & EAM
What are the positioning lines in reference to the IR for Parietoaanthial facial bones? OML 37 degrees from plane of IR, MML perpendicular
How should CR be directed for PA Axial (Caldwell) for orbital rims? 30 degrees caudad
How and where is the CR directed for lateral nasal bones? perpendicular to the bridge of the nose, 1/2" distal to nasion
How and where is CR directed for SMV zygomatic arches? perpendicular to IOML on MSP of throat 1" posterior to outer canthus
For AP axial (modified Towne) of zygomatic arches, where is the CR directed? at glabella (1" above nasion)
For PA mandibular rami, how and where is CR directed? perpendicular, exiting acanthion
What positioning line is perpendicular to the IR for PA mandibular rami? OML
How and where is CR directed for PA axial mandibular rami? 20-25 cephalad, exiting acanthion
How should the head be position for the Axiolateral mandible if no area of interest is specified? rotated 30 degrees toward the IR
How should the head be positioned for Axiolateral mandible to show the rami? Body? Symphysis? true lateral, rotated 30 degrees toward IR, rotated 45 degrees toward IR
How should the CR be directed for the axiolateral mandible? 25 degrees cephalad through the area of interest
What positioning line is used for AP axial TMJs? OML perpendicular to IR
How and where is CR directed for AP axial TMJs? 35 degrees caudad, 3" above nasion
Where is the IR centered for Axiolateral oblique TMJs? 1/2" anterior to EAM
For Axiolateral oblique TMJs, how should MSP of head be positioned? rotated 15 degrees toward the IR
What are the positioning lines in reference to the IR for Axiolateral oblique TMJs? IPL perpendicular, AML parallel with transverse axis
How and where is CR directed for Axiolateral oblique TMJs? 15 degrees cephalad, 1.5" above EAM, exiting TMJ closest to IR
Which sinus groups are demonstrated in Lateral sinus projections? all 4, particularly sphenoidal
Which sinus groups are demonstrated in the PA axial (Caldwell)? frontal and anterior ethmoidal
What are the smallest skull bones? lacrimal
What are the largest immovable facial bones? maxillae
Which bone contains the infraorbital foramen? maxilla
Which facial bones are not paired? vomer & mandible
Which bone forms the inferior nasal septum? vomer
What is the overall largest and densest facial bone? mandible
How many cranial and facial bones make up the orbits? 3 cranial, 4 facial
Which bones make up the floor of the cranium? ethmoid, sphenoid, 2 temporal
What suture is between the temporal and parietal bones? squamosal
What suture is between the occipital and parietal bones? lambdoidal
What angle are the petrous pyramids in a mesocephalic skull? Brachycephalic? Dolichocephalic? 47 degrees from MSP, 54 degrees, 40 degrees
Which bone contains the supraorbital foramina? frontal
Which bone contains the cribriform plate? ethmoid
What bone contains the superior and middle nasal conchae? ethmoid
Which bone contains the crista galli? ethmoid
Which bone has two lateral masses called labyrinths? What is in them? ethmoid; ethmoidal air cells/sinuses
What bony prominences are used to measure the skull width in order to set a proper technique? parietal eminences
Which bone contains the pterygoid processes? sphenoid
What are the anterior and posterior border of the sella turcica? tuberculum sellae & dorsum sellae
Where are the posterior clinoid processes? on the sphenoid bone at the top corners of the dorsum sellae
What are the 3 paired foramina on the greater wings of the sphenoid bone from lateral to medial? foramina spinosum, ovale, rotundum
What is another name for the internal and external occipital protuberance? inion
What passes through the foramen magnum? medulla oblongata
Which bone has a styloid process? temporal
Which bone contains the petromastoid portion? temporal
What do the articular tubercle and mandibular fossa form? TMJ
What are the 3 auditory ossicles? malleus, incus, stapes
Created by: SCash21