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Instrumentation and Quality Assurance

In mammography, selecting extremely low kVp values increases contrast but increases patient dose
What target-filtration combination provides the best penetration for dense or thick breast? rhodium target with rhodium filtration
The material used for the exit port of the mammography tube is necessary because Regular glass would harden the emerging beam.
The intensity of the x-ray beam from the cathode side of the tube is generally higher because The heel effect causes variation in the intensity of the x-ray beam.
The design of the lip of the compression paddle (both height and angle along the chest wall) affects all of the following -prevents the posterior and axillary fat from overlapping the body of the breast -allows uniform compression of the posterior breast tissue -helps to increase structural strength of the compression paddle
The primary goal of compression is to allow uniform penetration of structures within the breast.
AEC failure, resulting in an underexposed radiograph, can be caused by improper placement of the dense breast tissue/size over the detector
Most AEC circuitry in modern mammographic imaging has at least three detectors. Three or more detectors are recommended because Multiple detectors allow for maximum variations in breast size and tissue density.
The major difference between the general radiography grid and the grid used in mammography is that the grids used in general radiography have higher ratios
As the size of the x-ray field decreases, to maintain a constant image density the exposure will increase
The chest wall edge of the compression paddle should be aligned just beyond the chest wall edge of the IR to avoid projecting the chest wall edge of the paddle on the mammogram.
Which of the following affects focal spot size? angle of the anode
In mammography, the commonly used focal spot size for routine work is 0.3 mm
Which of the following characteristics are unique to mammography cassettes? generally have a single intensifying screen.
Two main disadvantages of extended processing are increased processing artifact and increased film fog
In digital mammography, both the film and cassette can be replaced by a detector and electronic system
The greatest difference between digital technology and conventional mammography imaging is In digital technology, the final image can be manipulated
All of the following are characteristics of double emulsion film/screens combination. Which characteristic makes these systems undesirable in mammography use? The system has a lower spatial resolution than the single emulsion systems.
Film fog is best demonstrated on the characteristic curve as the toe of the graph
The characteristic curve, obtained by plotting density values from a sensitometer, can be used to assess all of the following exvept: to compare the x-ray beam quality with different films
The characteristic curve of two films is plotted.The curve of film A is positioned to the left of the curve of film B. -film A is faster than film B -at any optical density, film A will require less exposure than film B
Which of the following mammographic quality control tests is performed monthly? visual checklist
Adequate "air bleed time" refers to the elapsed time between film loading and exposure
Which of the following quality control tests does not require a densitometer? screen cleanliness
The criteria to pass the ACR Mammography Accreditation on conventional phantom imaging require a minimum of ___ masses. three
In establishing processing quality control operating levels, the speed index is designated as the density closest to but not less than 1.20
For the daily quality control testing, the base-plus-fog level should remain within +0.03 of the established levels
The screen-cleaning test should be carried out whenever a mammographer notices dust artifacts on the image
Before processing the sensitometric strip each day, the mammographer should check the developer temperature
The phantom image background optical density should never be less than 1.20
In the darkroom fog test, the optical density difference between fogged and unfogged areas of the film should not exceed 0.05
In viewing phantom image, which of the following viewing conditions need not apply? using the same film emulsion batch
In the test for screen contact there were multiple points of small areas (<1 cm in diameter) of poor contact. The corrective action is to return the cassette to clinical use
One of the two reasons towels are used in the compression test is to protect the cassette holder
For the repeat analysis to be meaningful, a patient volume of at least ___ patients is needed. 250
Daily processing control can involve all of the following except using the sensitometer to measure the densities on the strip
Proving that a darkroom fog failure is a result of safelight problems involves repeating the test with the safelights off
The darkroom fog test is performed semiannually
Daily processor control is used to -determine the film speed -check the film contrast -check the stability of the processor
If, after examining a phantom image, the number of visualized fibers of masses has changed significantly, the next step is to check the mammography unit or the image processor
Repeated films are films that involve exposure to the patient
If the patient volume at a mammography site is 200 patients per week, the repeat/reject analysis should be done every 3 months
All the fluorescent tubes in the mammography view box should be replaced at the same time because Fluorescent tubes decrease in brightness with age
In imaging the phantom, the technical factors used should be the same as those used clinically for a __-cm-thick breast of medium glandularity. 4.0-4.5
Mammography facilities can receive certification from -the FDA -an SAC state
An MQSA certificate is issued when a mammography facility has been accredited. This certification is valued for 3 years
If any of the visual checks fail, the first step is to correct or replace the item
Digital images can be viewed on a computer monitor or printed using dry laser technology
Hardcopy viewing of the digital imaging describes the image that is sent for interpretation
The grid ratio can vary in modern mammography units. A common grid ratio used is 4:1
Created by: Raiderette209