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med term paul

flash cards of med terms

Open reduction consists of realigning the bone under direct observation during surgery
closed reduction consists of aligning the bone fragments though manual manipulation or traction without making an incision into the skin
pathological fracture when a bone, which is weakened by a preexisting disease, breaks in response to a force that would not cause a normal bone to break
fracture a broken bone a sudden breaking of a bone
hairline fracture "stress fracture" minor fracture in which the bones continues to be a perfect alignment appears on an x-ray as a very thin "hair line" between the two segments.
Colles' Fracture occurs at the lower end of the radius within 1 inch of the connecting with the wrist bones
Impacted Fracture occurs when a direct force causes the bone to break forcing the broken end of the smaller bone into the broken end of the larger bone
compression fracture caused by bone surfaces being forced against each other, as in the compression of one vertebra against another compression fractures are often associated with osteoporosis
open fracture known as a compound fracture there is a break in a bone as well as an open wound in the skin break that extends though the entire thickness of the bone
closed fracture known as a simple fracture there is a break in a bone but no open wound in the skin
scoliosis an abnormal lateral (sideward) curvature of a portion of the spine the curvature may be to the left or to the right
lordosis an abnormal inward curvature of a portion of the spine commonly known as swayback
kyphosis an abnormal outward curvature of a portion of the spine commonly known as humpback or hunchback
spinal stenosis a narrowing of the vertebral canal, nerve root canals or intervertebral foramini (openings) of the lumbar spinal canal the narrowing causes pressure on the nerve roots prior to their exit from the foramini
osteomyelitis local or generalized infection of te bone and bone marrow resulting from a bacterial infection that has spread to the bone tissue though the blood
osteomalacia disease in which the bones become abnormally soft due to a deficiency of calcium and phosphorus in the blood
osteoporosis porous bones bones that were once strong become fragile due to loss of bone density
tubercle a small rounded process of a bone
true ribs the first seven of ribs which connect to the vertebrae in the back and to the sternum in the front
trochanter large bony process located below the neck of the femur
sutures immovable joints such as those of cranium
sulcus a groove or depression in a bone a fissure
sinus an opening or hollow space in a bone, a cavity within a bone
short bones bones that are about as long as they are wide and somewhat box shaped such as the wrist bone
periosteum the thick white fibrous membrane that covers the surface of a long bone
osteocytes mature bone cells
osteoblasts immature bone cell that actively produce bony tissue
ossification the conversion of cartilage and fibrous connective tissue to bone the formation of bone
long bones bones that are longer than they are wide and with distinctive shaped ends, such as the femur
intervertebral disc a flat circular platelike structure of cartilage that serves as a cushion between the vertebrae
intercostal spaces spaces between the ribs
hematopoiesis the normal formation and development of blood cells in the bone marrow
foramen hole in a bone though which blood vessels or nerves pass
fontanelle or fontanel space between the bones of an infants cranium "soft spot"
floating ribs rib pairs 11 and 12 which connect to the vertebrae in the back but free of any attachment in the front
flat bones bones that are broad and thin with flat or curved surfaces, such as the sternum
false ribs rib pairs 8-10 which connect to the vertebrae in the back but not to the sternum in the front because tehy join the seventh rib in the front
epiphysis the end of a bone
epiphyseal line a layer of cartilage that separates the diaphysis from the epiphysis of a bone also known as the epiphyseal plate
diaphysis main shaftlike portion of a bone
condyle knucklelike projection at the end of a bone
phalanges the bones of the toes each toe has 3 phalangeal bones except the great toe which only has 2
metatarsals the bones of the foot the heads of metatarsal bones form the ball of the foot
tarsals the bone of the ankle there are 7 tarsal bones
tibia the largest and strongest of the two lower leg bones called the shin bone located on the great toe side of the lower leg
fibula more slender of the two lower leg bones lateral to the tibia, smaller of the two bones
xiphoid process the lower portion of the sternum
mandibular bone lower jaw bone largest strongest bone of the face only movable bone of the skull tmj
lacrimal bones two bones, paper thin and shaped somewhat like a fingernail located at the inner corner of each eye forming the sidewall of the nasal cavity adn the middle wall of the eye
occipital bone forms the back of the head and the base of the skull contains foramen magnum though which the spinal cord passes
frontal bone forms the forehead (front of the skull) and the upper part of the bony cavities that contain the eyeballs, contains the sinuses
tendons connective tissue which binds muscle to bone
synovial joints freely moving joints
smooth muscles muscles found in visceral organs and blood vessels
skeletal muscles a.k.a voluntary or straited muscles which attach to bone
ligaments connective tissue which binds bone to bone
articulation a joint which binds two bones together
acromion highest part of the shoulder where the clavicles and scapula meet
acetabulum a socket in the pelvic bone where the thigh bone joins the pelvis
tibia the largest and stronger of the two lower leg bones also called shin bone located on the great toe side of the lower leg
patella knee bone or kneecap largest sesamoid bone in the body located in the tendon of the large anterior thigh muscle
femur thigh bone longest heaviest and strongest bone in the body
ischium lowest part of the hip bones and is the strongest of the pelvic bones
iliac crest upper curved edge of the ilium has an anterior projection (towards the front of the body)
ilium the largest of the three hip bones it is the upper flared portion of the hip bones
phalanges the bones of the fingers and toes each finger has three thumb has only two
metacarpals bones of the hand join with the carpals at their upper end and with the phalanges at their lower end
carpals bones of the wrist each wrist has eight two rows of four bones each
ulna the second of the two lower arm bones that joins the humerus above and the wrist bones below on the medial or little finger side of the arm has large projection called olecranon process: olecranon forms the point of elbow
radius one of the two lower arm bones that joins the humerus above and the wrist bones below it is on the lateral or thumb side of the arm
humerus upper arm bone joins the scapula above and the radius and ulna below
coccyx the fifth segment of the vertebral column "tailbone" located and the END of the vertebral column
sacrum fouth segment of verbral column located below lumbar vertebrae adults is a single triangluat shaped cone that resulted from the fusion of the five individual sacal bones of the child wedged between the two hip bones and is attached to the pelvic gird
lumbar vertebrae third segment in vertebrae large and heavier than other vertebrae supports the back and lower trunk do not communicate with ribs L1 - L5
thoracic vertebrae second segment of the vertebral column consisting of the next 12 vertebrae connect with 12 pairs of ribs T1-T12
cervical vertebrae first segment of the vertebral column consists of the first seven bones c1-c7
temporal bones form the lower sides and part of the base of the skull contains middle and inner ear structures contains mastoid sinuses
Created by: ginaozanic