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counseling theorists

QuestionAnswer
key figure(s) of psychoanalytic therapy Sigmund Freud
key figure(s) of Adlerian Therapy Alfred Adler; later Dreikurs popularized approach in U.S.
key figure(s) of existential therapy Viktor Frankl; Rollo May: Yalom
key figure(s) of person-centered therapy Founder = Carl Rogers; Key figure= Natalie Rogers
key figure(s) of Gestalt Therapy Founders = Laura and Fritz Perls; Key figures = Miriam and Erving Polster
key figure(s) of Behavior Therapy B.F. Skinner; Lazarus; Bandura
key figure(s) of Cognitive behavior therapy Albert Ellis = REBT; Beck = CT
key figure(s) of Reality Therapy Founder = Glasser. Key figure = Wubbolding
key figure(s) of feminist therapy Jean Baker Miller; Carolyn Enns; Olivia Espin; Laura Brown
key figure(s) of post modern approaches Insoo Kim Berg and DeSchazer = Solution Focused Brief Therapy; Michael White and David Epston = narrative therapy
key figure(s) of family systems therapy Adler; Murray Bowen; Viginia Satir; Carl Whitaker; Salvador Minuchin; Jay Hayley; Cloe Madanes
Psychoanalytic Therapy psychotherapy that focuses on unconscious factors, especially 1st six years of life, that motivate behavior and determine later personality
Adlerian Therapy A growth model that stresses assuming responsibility, creating own destiny and finding meaning and goals to create a purposeful life
Existential therapy model stresses building therapy on basic conditions of human existence such as choice, freedom, responsibility, self-determination
person-centered therapy developed in 1940s as nondirective reaction to psychoanalysis places faith and responsibility to client in dealing with problems and concerns
Gestalt therapy An experimental therapy stressing awareness and integration, also grew out of reaction to analytical therapy. Integrates functioning of body and mind
Behavior therapy approach applies principles of learning to resolution of specific behavioral problems
REBT a highly didactic, cognitive, action-oriented model of therapy that stresses the role of thinking and belief systems as the root of personal problems.
Cognitive Therapy (CT) a form of therapy that gives the primary role to thinking as it influences behavior.
Reality Therapy short-term approach is based on choice theory and focuses on the client assuming responsibility in the present
Feminist Therapy A central concept in this therapy is the concern for the pyschological oppression of women
mandatory ethics is the view of ethical practice that deals with the minimum level of professional practice
aspirational ethics a higher level of ethical practice that addresses doing what is in the best interest of the client
informed consent the right of clients to be informed about their therapy and to make autonomous decisions pertaining to it
confidentiality an ethical concept to not disclose information about a concept (often also a legal duty)
assessment consists of evaluating the relevant factors in a client's life to identify themes for further exploration in the counseling process
diagnosis consists of identifying a specific mental disorder based on a pattern of symptoms
The ACA uses the term ______ to describe dual or multiple relationships non-professional interactions
According to psychoanalytic theory anxiety is a feeling of dread that results from repressed feelings, memories, and experience that emerge to the surface of awareness
According to psychoanalytic theory neurotic anxiety is the fear that the instincts will get out of hand and cause one to do something for which one will be punished
Reality anxiety is the fear of danger from the external world, and the level of anxiety is proportional to the degree of the real threat
Moral anxiety is the fear of one's own conscience
Ego defense mechanisms include repression, denial, reaction formation, projection, displacement, rationalization, sublimation, regression, introjection, identification, compensation
reaction formation is actively expressing the opposite impulse when confronted with a threatening impulse
projection is attributing one's own unacceptable desires and impulses to others
displacement is directing energy toward another object or person when the original object or person is inaccessible.
introjection is taking in and "swallowing" the values and standards of others; incorporating one's ego systems, one's idealized image of an object
Freud's psychosexual stages include oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
Erikson's pyschosocial stages include trust v. mistrust; autonomy v. shame; initiative v. guilt; industry v. inferiority; identity v. role confusion; intimacy v. isolation; generative v. stagnate; integrity v. dispair
transference is the client's unconscious shifting to the analyst of feelings and fantasies that are reactions to significant others in the client's past
object relations theory is a form of analytic treatment that involves exploration of internal unconscious identifications and internalizations of external objects
limitations of psychoanalytic approach takes too much time, expensive, practical applications of techniques may be limited, therapist anonymity may be bad of therapeutic relationship
Adlerian therapy can be describe as an approach that is holistic, social, goal oriented, systemic and humanistic
Adlerians attempt to view world from client's perspective, an approach which is known as phenomenological
Adler's approach is called Individual Psychology
Adler's concept of social interest refers to an action in lifne of one's community feeling, and involving the individual's positive attitude toward other people in the world
Community feeling embodies the feeling of being connected to all of humanity, past present and future and being involved in trying to make the world a better place
According to Adler's individual psychology social interest is the central __________ indicator of mental health.
Adler taught that we must master three universal life tasks including: building friendships (social task), establishing intimacy (love/marriage task), contributing to society (occupational task)
The basic goal of Adlerian therapy is to help clients identify and change ______________________ their mistaken beliefs about self, others, and life and thus participate more full in a social world.
Adlerians view clients not as psychologically sick but as _____________________ discouraged
limitations of the Adlerian approach include limited empirical testing of effectiveness of elements of theory
logotherapy an existential model developed by Viktor Frankl focusing on meaningfulness of life in all circumstances.
The basic dimensions of the human condition according to existential approaches include 1)capacity for self-awareness; 2)freedom and responsibility; 3) creating identity and meaningful relationships; 4) search for meaning, purpose, values, goals; 5) anxiety as condition of living; 6) awareness of death and nonbeing
Phases of existential therapy 1) therapist assists client in identifying assumptions 2) encourage to examine source of present value system 3) helping client take what they've learned about self and put it into action
Person centered therapy is based on a philosophy of human nature that postulates an innate striving for self-actualization
Principles of Gestalt Theory Holism; field theory; figure formation process
Field theory Gestalt theory that the organism must be seen in its environment as part of a constantly changing field
Holism Gestalt therapists see all of nature as unified and coherent whole and the whole as different from the sum of its parts. No emphasis is put on any one aspect of a person's personality
The figure formation process tracks how some aspect of the environmental field emerges from the background and becomes the focal point of the individual's attention and interest.
organismic self-regulation (gestalt) a process by which equilibrium is disturbed by the emergence of a need,sensation or interest
Gestalt therapy focuses on helping clients full experience the ________ moment present
phenomenological inquiry paying attention to what is happening now (Gestalt)
Gestalt therapists rarely ask "why" questions favoring "--------" and "-------" questions what, how
Created by: shelldhartman