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Patho 2 test 2

Respiratory diseases

also called eupenia. rhythmic and effortless. rate 8-16 breaths/min. tidal volume 400-800mL. normal breathing
subjective sensation of uncomfortable breathing, the feeling of not being able to get enough air dyspnea
is characterized by slightly increased rate, very large tidal volume, and expiratory pause. hyperpnea (kussmaul respiration)
occurs when the airways are occluded (copd) and is characterized by slow rate, large tidal volume, increase effort and prolong expiration and inspiration obstructive breathing
results from any condition that slows down the blood flow to the brain stem and is characterized by apnea lasting 15-60 secs. followed by ventilations increasing in vol. till a peak is reached, the Vt decrease again to apnea cheyne-stokes respiration
explosive expiration cough
coughing up of blood or bloody secretions hemoptysis
bluish discoloration of skin and mucous membrane cyanosis
selective bulbous enlargement of the distal segment of a digit. PAINLESS and usually associated with low oxygenation clubbing
preventable and treatable disease, characterized by airfflow limitation not fully reversible, progressive and assiciated with an abnormal inflammatory response to noxious particles or gases COPD
fourth leading cause of death in the U.S. and overall mortality has increased 103% COPD
syndrome resulting from the combination of chronic bronchitis and pulmonary emphysema. characterized by difficult expiration with more force required to expire a given amt. of air or slowed emptying of the lungs or both COPD
hypersecretion of mucus and chronic productive cough that continues for at lease 3 months of the year for at least 2 consecutive years chronic bronchitis
incidence is ^ in smokers (20 fold) and even more so in workers exposed to air pollution. repeated infections are common chronic bronchitis
T or F. In chronic bronchits the airways collapse early in expiration, trapping gas in the distal portion of the lung >>> ventilation perfusion mismatch, hypoventilation and hypoxemia True
clinical symptoms: dyspnea, decrease exercise tolerace, wheezing, productive cough and evidence of airway obstruction, decrease FEV1 and FVC, increased FRC and RV as airway obstruction becomes more pronounced chronic bronchitis
As ___ progresses there is marked hypoxemia>> polycythemia and cyanosis>>> pulm. hypertension>> cor pulmonale. chronic bronchitis
The best treatment for chronic bronchitis is Prevention
In chronic bronchitis, bronchodilators and ___ are used to increase airways caliber, improve secreation removal and maximize gas exchange expectorants
in chronic bronchits, infections are treated aggressively and low flow O2 is adm. to maintain peripheral PO2 between ___. 50-60mmHg
permanent enlargement of the gas exchange airways accompanied by destruction of alveolar walls (decrease area for gas exchange) without fibrosis>> changes in LUNG tissue instead of inflammation and mucous production Pulmonary emphysema
T or F. In chronic bronchitis, pathological changes are irreversible but elimination of injuring factors stops the progression of the disease true
_______ may be primary or secondary to chronic bronchitis and cigarette smoking pulmonary emphysema
symptoms include dyspnea at rest, no cough with very little sputum production with tachypnea and prolonged expiration Pulmonary emphysema
6th leading cause of death in the USA and the most lethal infection pneumonia
It's an acute infection of the lower respiratory tract typically caused by bacteria and viruses (also by fungi, protozoa or parasites) Pneumonia
Pneumonia: what is consolidation of a lobe called lobar pneumonia
Pneumonia: what is consolidation of a more diffuse area. bronchopneumonia
in regards to Pneumonia: The___ agent influences the clinical ion, how it should be treated and the prognosis. causitive
community acquired pneumonia is usually caused by the ____ pneumococcus while the nosocomial frequently results from ____ pneumococcus, P. aeruginosa
clinical manifestation of pneumonia: fever, chills, cough, asthenia, anorexia, pleural pain, and sometimes dyspnea and hemoptysis.
T or F. With pneumonia there is leukopenia with neutropenia False. Leukocytosis and neutrophilia
sometimes it is necessary to obtain the sputum by transtracheal aspiration to avoid what? contamination with the normal flora.
In pneumonia the pathogen is identified by means of sputum ___, staining, and cultures. characteristics, staining, and cultures
Treatment of bacterial pneumonia consists on administration of what? Antibiotics
Some severe cases of pneumonia will need______ and _____. mechanical ventilation and O2 administration.
Highly contagious infection caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis, an acid-fast bacillus which usually affects the lungs but may invade other body systems and organs Tuberculosis
The leading cause of death from a curable infectious disease worldwide Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis is transmitted from person to person in airborne droplets and once the microorganism lodge in the lungs (usually upper lobe), it starts to multiply causing a non-specific _____. pneumonitis
In Tuberculosis, the microorganism can migrate through the lymphatics and lodge in the lymph nodes triggering a(n)____ response with inflammation and phagocytosis immune
In tuberculosis, inflammation and phagocytosis___ the bacilli, preventing their spread and sealing off their____ isolate, colonies
common manifestatons include fatigue, weight loss, anorexia, lethargy, low-grade fever (typically occurring in the afternoon) Tuberculosis
How is TB diagnosed positive skin, sputum culture, and CXR
A positive skin test for TB proves that the individual has been exposed to the bacillus and developed____ against it Antibodies
Tuberculosis grade 1 = No TB, no exposure, no infection
Tuberculosis grade 2 = Infection, no disease
Tuberculosis grade 3 = Clinically active disease
Tuberculosis grade 4 = Not clinically active disease
Tuberculosis grade 5 = TB suspected
Cardiac disorder secondary to a pulmonary pathologic condition Cor Pulmonale
Cor Pulmonale is separated into: Acute and Chronic
Acute Cor Pulmonale can be caused by? Pulmonary Embolism
In pulm. Embolism , emboli usually originate from thrombi in the legs occlude pulm. art. branches thus obstructing the blood supply to the ______. Pulmonary parenchyma
Sx: profound shock, hypotension, tachypnea, tachycardia, severe pulm. hypertension, chest pain, fever, leukocytosis and hemoptysis, announcing of imminent death Pulm. Embolism
Chronic Cor Pulmonale consist on ___ dilation and or _____ secondary to long term _____ caused by disorders of the lung (chronic bronchitis and pulm emphysema) or the thoracic wall. RV, hypertrophy, pulmonary hypertension
T or F. pulm hypertension>>> in pulm resistance>>> increase RV afterload>>>dilation and hypertrophy of the myocardial wall until it fails. True
Sx usually consists on chest pain, peripheral edema, hepatic congestion, altered tricuspid and pulmonic valves sounds, hepatomegaly and jugular distention. Chronic Cor Pulmonale
Treatment of chronic Cor Pulmonale is aimed to decrease ________ (the same for pulm. hypertension which success depends on reversal of _____ right ventricle workload, underlying lung disease.
Lung cancer is also termed bronchiogenic carcinoma because it originates from epithelial tissue of the respiratory tract
the number 1 cancer killer in the world lung cancer
Primary lung cancer (bronchiogenic carcinoma) is divided into two types: Small cell carcinoma and non-small cell carcinoma
This primary lung ca. is centrally located, near the hilus, and project into bronchi squamus cell carcinoma
This primary lung ca. is smaller than 4cm. arise in the peripheral regions of pulm parenchyma adenocarcinoma
This primary lung ca. arise peripherally but can also be central. can distort the trachea and the carina large cell undifferentiated carcinoma
Non small cell carcinoma is divided into: squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, large cell undifferentiated carcinoma
Small cell lung carcinoma originates from the ____. it arises from the ___part of the lung, and metastasize early and widely neuroendocrine cell: central
Staging for NSCLC is based on the TNM classification system. T=_____, N=_____, M=_______. T: extend of primary tumor N: Nodal involvement M: extent of metastasis
Staging for small cell carcinomas is: limited disease and extensive disease.
Small cell lung carcinoma arises from______ cells; they cause secretion of ___ hormones, and _____ syndrome (Siadh, acth, calcitonin) neuroendocrine, ectopic, paraneoplastic
T of F. most symptoms for Lung cancers are insidious and ambiguous including coughing, chest pain, sputum production, hemoptysis, pneumonia, airway obstruction and pleural effusion. True
Diagnosis of Lung cancer relies on __ of the patient and his/her risk factors, careful physical exam. history
Diagnostic test for Lung cancer: sputum cytology, simple chest xray, cat scan, pet scan, bronchoscopy, bronchography, biopsy, potential mets. disease
all diagnostic test for lung cancer are to Establish the presence of a primary lung tumor, determine its cell type, stage tumor.
which type of Lung cancer is more responsive to chemotherapy Small cell lung cancer (SCLC). 90% respond to chemotherapy, but almost all relapse in two years
Treatment of lung cancer depends on accurate determination of the type of _____ and the ____ of the tumor. Chemo and radiation therapy are commonly used. cancer cell, stage
New approaches to the treatment of lung cancer include: antiangiogenic therapy, targeting growth factor receptors, tumor sensitizing agents, gene therapy, immunotherapy.
frequently Pneumonias are preceded by an _____. URTI
Common manifestation of of TB include: fatigue, weight loss, anorexia, lethargy, low grade fever (typically occurs in the afternoon.
What type of cough is present in TB a cough producing purulent sputum develops slowly becoming more and more frequent
As TB progresses what symptoms are present: dyspnea, chest pain, and hemoptysis
Created by: Bvaleris