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Ch 2 Glossary

Ammeter An instrument designed to read the current through elements in series with the meter.
Ampere (A) The SI unit of measurement applied to the flow of charge through a conductor.
Ampere-hour (Ah) rating The rating applied to a source of energy that will reveal how long a particular level of current can be drawn from that source.
Cell A fundamental source of electrical energy developed through the conversion of chemical or solar energy.
Conductors Materials that permit a generous flow of electrons with very little voltage applied.
Copper A material possessing physical properties that make it particularly useful as a conductor of electricity.
Coulomb (C) The fundamental SI unit of measure for charge. It is equal to the charge carried by 6.242 x 1018 electrons.
Coulomb's law An equation defining the force of attraction or repulsion between two charges.
Current The flow of charge resulting from the application of a difference in potential between two points in an electrical system.
dc current source A source that will provide a fixed current level even though the load to which it is applied may cause its terminal voltage to change.
dc generator A source of dc voltage available through the turning of the shaft of the device by some external means.
Direct current (dc) Current having a single direction (unidirectional) and a fixed magnitude over time.
Electrolysis The process of passing a current through an electrolyte to break it down into its fundamental components.
Electrolytes The contact element and the source of ions between the electrodes of the battery.
Electron The particle with negative polarity that orbits the nucleus of an atom.
Free electron An electron unassociated with any particular atom, relatively free to move through a crystal lattice structure under the influence of external forces.
Fuel cell A nonpolluting source of energy that can establish cur¬rent through a load by simply applying the correct levels of hydrogen and oxygen.
Insulators Materials in which a very high voltage must be ap¬plied to produce any measurable current flow.
Neutron The particle having no electrical charge found in the nucleus of the atom.
Nucleus The structural center of an atom that contains both pro¬tons and neutrons.
Positive ion An atom having a net positive charge due to the loss of one of its negatively charged electrons.
Potential difference The algebraic difference in potential (or voltage) between two points in an electrical system.
Potential energy The energy that a mass possesses by virtue of its position.
Primary cell Sources of voltage that cannot be recharged. Proton The particle of positive polarity found in the nucleus of an atom.
Rectification The process by which an ac signal is converted to one that has an average dc level.
Secondary cell Sources of voltage that can be recharged.
Semiconductor A material having a conductance value between that of an insulator and that of a conductor. Of significant importance in the manufacture of electronic devices.
Solar cell Sources of voltage available through the conversion of light energy (photons) into electrical energy.
Specific gravity The ratio of the weight of a given volume of a substance to the weight of an equal volume of water at 4°C.
Volt (V) The unit of measurement applied to the difference in potential between two points. If 1 joule of energy is required to move 1 coulomb of charge between two points, the difference in potential is said to be 1 volt.
Voltage The term applied to the difference in potential be-tween two points as established by a separation of opposite charges.
Voltmeter An instrument designed to read the voltage across an element, or between any two points in a network.
Created by: rbartholomy