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Penetrant LVL 1

QuestionAnswer
1. Which condition affects the rate and extent a liquid penetrant will enter cracks, fissures and other small openings? a. specimen hardness b. specimen surface condition c. penetrant color d. conductivity of tested specimen. b. the surface condition of the specimen being tested
2. Which of the following is a commonly used classification for penetrant? a. postemulsifiable penetrant b. nonferrous penetrant c. chemical etch penetrant d. nonaqueous penetrant a. postemulsifiable penetrant
3. A generally accepted method for removing excess nonwater washable penetrant is: a. repeatedly dipping the test specimen in a cleaner b.   soaking the test specimen in hot detergent water c.    blowing the excess penetrant off the surface of the d. wiping and cautiously cleaning the test specimen with a cleaner-dampened cloth
4. All of the following parts can be tested by the liquid penetrant method except: a. an iron casting b. an aluminum forging c. a part made from a porous plastic material d. a part made from a nonporous material c. a part made from a porous plastic material
5. Which of the following discontinuities can be found by the penetrant test method? a. a surface crack b. a subsurface crack c. an internal inclusion d. none of the above a. a surface crack
6. Which of the following is generally the more acceptable method for cleaning parts prior to penetrant testing? a. sand blasting b. wire brushing c. grinding d. vapor degreasing d. vapor degreasing
7. 7. All of the following methods are commonly used to clean parts prior to penetrant testing except: a. vapor degreasing b. liquid solvent c. power wire brushing d. alkaline cleaner c. power wire brushing
8. Cutting oils may be effectively removed from parts before penetrant testing by: a. preheating b. vapor degreasing c. washing with water d. all of the above b. vapor degreasing
9. The most common type of contaminant in fluorescent penetrant fluid is: a. metal filings b. oil c. detergents (from cleaning) d. water d. water
10. Ultraviolet light, with a proper functioning filter in place, used for fluorescent penetrant inspection can cause permanent damage to: a. human tissues b. human eyes c. human blood cells d. none of the above d. none of the above
11. All of the following basic inspection principles apply to the visible penetrant methods except: a. the penetrant must enter the discontinuity in order to form an indication b. indications glow when illuminated with an ultraviolet light c. clea b. indications glow when illuminated with an ultraviolet light
12. Subsurface discontinuities can be best detected by: a. the post emulsification penetrant method b. the visible dye penetrant method c. the fluorescent, water washable penetrant method d. none of the above d. none of the above
13. Water washable penetrants may be applied by: a. brushing b. spraying c. dipping d. all of the above d. all of the above
14. The first step in conducting a liquid penetrant test on a surface that has been painted is to: a. carefully apply the penetrant over the surface b. completely remove the paint c. thoroughly wash the surface with a detergent d. wire brush the sur b. completely remove the paint
15. When using a postemulsification penetrant, it is necessary to apply the emulsifier: a. before applying the penetrant b. after the water wash operation c. after the dwell time has elapsed d. after the development time has elapsed c. after the dwell time has elapsed
16. When conducting a water washable liquid penetrant test, the wet developer is applied: a. immediately after the penetrant has been applied b. immediately before the penetrant is applied c. after removal of the penetrant d. after removal of th c. after removal of the penetrant
17. The term used to describe the action of a particular developer in soaking up the penetrant in a discontinuity, so as to cause the maximum bleedout of the liquid penetrant for increased contrast and sensitivity, is known as: a. blotting b. capill a. blotting
18. Using an ultraviolet light lamp with a cracked filter or without the filter in place can cause damage to human eyes because the lamp emits: a. black light b. ultraviolet light c. infrared light d. none of the above b. ultraviolet light
19. The term used to define the period of time in which the test pan is covered with penetrant is: a. waiting time b. soak time (drain time) c. penetration time (dwell time) d. bleed in time c. penetration time (dwell time)
20. Usually, the most desirable method of removing excess water washable penetrant after the dwell time is by using: a. a low pressure coarse water spray b. water and brush c. a solid stream of water d. water and clean rags a. a low pressure coarse water spray
21. When conducting a liquid penetrant test using a postemulsifiable visible dye penetrant, the generally accepted method for applying the wet developer is by: a. brushing b. swabbing c. dipping d. spraying d. spraying
22. Which is not characteristic of liquid penetrant testing? a. Can accurately measure the crack depth b. Can be used on-site on large parts c. Can find shallow surface indications d. Can adjust sensitivity with different PT materials. a. this method can accurately measure the depth of a crack or discontinuity
23 Which of the following discontinuities is most likely to be missed due to improper rinse techniques? a. a forging lap b. deep pitting c. shallow and broad discontinuities d. the rinse technique will not affect discontinuity detection c. shallow and broad discontinuities
24. When conducting a fluorescent penetrant test, a commonly used technique for assuring that the excess penetrant has been removed prior to the application of a developer is to: a. blow compressed air over the surface b. chemically etch the surface d. scan the surface with an ultraviolet light
25. Which of the following surface conditions could have a detrimental effect on a liquid penetrant test? a. a wet surface b. a rough weld c. an oily surface d. all of the above. d. all of the above.
26. Liquid penetrant testing is capable of detecting: a. subsurface intergranular stress corrosion cracking discontinuities. b. Discontinuities open to the surface c. Subsurface discontinuities d. Lack of fusion(subsurface). b. Discontinuities open to the surface
27. Ultraviolet light equipment is required when penetrant testing by: a. the fluorescent penetrant method b. the visible dye penetrant method c. the nonfluorescent penetrant method d. all of the above. a. the fluorescent penetrant method
28. The tendency of certain liquids to penetrate into small openings such as cracks or fissures is: a. Saturation b. Capillary Action c. blotting d. wetting agent b. Capillary Action
29. Excess penetrant is removed from specimen: a. after penetrant dwell time b. before emulsifier is applied. c. by steam cleaner d. only when water wash penetrants are used. a. after penetrant dwell time
30. When using a postemulsifiable penetrant, the emulsifier time should be: a. as long as the penetrant dwell time b. half the penetrant dwell time c. the same as the developer time d. only as long as necessary to remove the interfering backgrou d. only as long as necessary to remove the interfering background
31. The generally accepted minimum time period for eyes becoming accustomed to the dark is: a. 1 to 5 min b. 5 to 10 min e. 10 to 15 min d. no waiting period is necessary a. 1 to 5 min
32. When applying penetrant by dipping, heating the penetrant prior to dipping: a. will not increase test sensitivity b. will not increase penetrant capillary action c. will increase the penetrant stability d. is not generally recommended d. is not generally recommended
33. Liquid penetrant inspection cannot find: a. surface porosity b. surface cracks c. an internal cavity d. a surface forging lap c. an internal cavity
34. All of the following materials can be tested by the usual liquid penetrant tests except: a. unglazed porous ceramic b. titanium c. high alloy steel d. cast iron a. unglazed porous ceramic
35. Liquid penetrant testing can be used to detect: a. discontinuities 1.6 mm (0.06 in.) below the surface b. internal discontinuities c. discontinuities open to the surface d. all discontinuities c. discontinuities open to the surface
36. Commonly accepted methods for applying penetrant? a. dipping the part in penetrant (dipping) b. pouring the penetrant over the test specimen (flowing) c. spraying the penetrant on the test specimen (spraying) d. all of the above d. all of the above
37. Which is not characteristic of a surface cleaning solvent: a. cleaner must be able to dissolve oils and greases b. cleaner must not be flammable c. cleaner must be free of excessive contaminants d. cleaner must leave a minimal surface residue. b. cleaner must not be flammable
38. Danger of sandblast surface cleaning parts before penetrant testing? a. disc may be peened over and closed b. oils may be sealed in crevices e. blasting sand may be forced into discontinuity d. sandblasting may create discontinuities a. disc may be peened over and closed
39. The penetrant applied to test specimen surface: a. seeps into discontinuities b. is absorbed by discontinuities c. is drawn into discontinuities by capillary action d. is drawn into discontinuities by gravity c. is drawn into discontinuities by capillary action
40. Which PT statement is correct? a. fluorescent penetrants produce red against white indications b. nonfluorescent penetrants require UV lights. c. fluorescent indications will be seen with UV lights d. nonfluorescent indications glow in the dark c. fluorescent indications will be seen with UV lights
41. When removing excess penetrant from test surface: a. Do not remove Penetrant in discontinuities. b. Excess penetrant is removed to prevent interfering background. c. Penetrant removal by solvent-dampened cloths is common. d. all d. all
42. Remove excess water washable penetrant from component by: a. using a wet rag b. using a water spray rinse c. washing the part directly under water running from a tap d. immersing the part in water b. using a water spray rinse
43. The test specimen final inspection for discontinuities should occur: a. immediately after the developer applied b. any time after the developer applied c. after developer on specimen for dwell time. d. immediately after the rinse operation c. after developer on specimen for dwell time.
44. Advantage of visible dye (VD) over fluorescent penetrants? a. VD penetrants do not require UV light b. VD penetrants are more sensitive c. superior penetrating characteristics of VD penetrants d. non toxic VD penetrants a. VD penetrants do not require UV light
45. The terms dry, aqueous wet and nonaqueous wet are used to describe three different types of: a. emulsifiers b. cleaners c. developers d. penetrants c. developers
46. Which of the following is not a generally accepted method for applying penetrants? a. rubbing the penetrant over the surface b. brushing the penetrant on the part c. spraying the penetrant on the part d. dipping the part in the penetrant a. rubbing the penetrant over the surface
47. Which of the following is the most commonly used method for removing nonwater washable visible dye penetrant from the surface of a test specimen? a. dipping in a solvent b. spraying c. hand wiping d. blowing c. hand wiping
48. Which of the following is an acceptable method for applying wet developers? a. application with a soft brush b. application with a hand powder bulb c. rubbing with a saturated cloth d. spraying or dipping d. spraying or dipping
49. When removing excess solvent removable penetrant: a. dipping the part in solvent b. spraying the part with water and a solvent c. rubbing the part with a wet rag d. wiping part with solvent dampened rag d. wiping part with solvent dampened rag
50. During a penetrant test, observe all health precautions except: a. keeping the work area clean b. washing any penetrant from skin with soap and water ASAP c. keeping penetrant off clothes d. using gasoline to remove excess penetrant from skin. d. using gasoline to remove excess penetrant from skin.
51. Which of the following surface contaminants cannot be removed by cleaning parts in a vapor degreaser? a. grease b. rust c. heavy oil d. soluble oil b. rust
52. Before conducting a liquid penetrant test, it is important to ensure that the surface of the part is free of: a. oil or grease b. acids or chromates c. traces of water d. all of the above d. all of the above
53. When performing a penetrant test using a postemulsification penetrant, which of the following is the most critical with respect to proper timing? a. dwell time b. developing time c. emulsification time d. drying time c. emulsification time
54. Result of excess emulsification time when using PE penetrants? a. many nonrelevant indications b. loss of shallow discontinuity indications c. remaining excess penetrant after wash operation d. hardened emulsifier prevents blotting developer b. loss of shallow discontinuity indications
55. Developers should be able to perform all of the following functions except: a. blotting penetrant from discontinuities b. aiding in providing an image of a discontinuity c. adding fluorescence to penetrants d. helping control bleedout c. adding fluorescence to penetrants
56. Primary limitation of liquid penetrant testing? a. PT cannot be used on ferromagnetic material b. PT cannot locate shallow surface discontinuities c. PT cannot be used on nonmetallic surfaces d. PT cannot locate subsurface discontinuities d. PT cannot locate subsurface discontinuities
57. In PT, the time period from developer application to inspection is often referred to as the: a. emulsification time b. development time c. dwell time d. none of the above. b. development time
58. PT is a NDT test that can be used for: a. locating and evaluating all types of discontinuities b. locating discontinuity length, width, and depth. c. determining the test specimen tensile strength d. locating discontinuities open to the surface d. locating discontinuities open to the surface
59. When performing fluorescent PT, ultraviolet light equipment is required to: a. cause the penetrant to fluoresce b. aid the normal capillary action of a penetrant c. neutralize excess surface penetrant d. decrease the parts surface tension a. cause the penetrant to fluoresce
60. The method used to remove excess visible dye penetrant from a test specimen is primarily determined by: a. the surface roughness of the specimen b. the type of material being tested c. the length of penetration time d. all of the above a. the surface roughness of the specimen
61. Which of the following is a type of developer used in penetrant inspection? a. dry b. aqueous particulate c. nonaqueous particulate d. water soluble e. all of the above e. all of the above
62. When PT testing pans, the part temperature be near room temperature. Low part temperature causes: a. viscous penetrant b. evaporate penetrant c. color intensity of the penetrant will decrease d. penetrant may adhere to part surface a. viscous penetrant
63. If a part to be penetrant tested is hot, the penetrant: a. may become viscous b. may reduce sensitivity to small defects c. may lose some of its color brilliance d. will show small discontinuities better d. will show small discontinuities better
64. Penetrants may be classified by the excess penetrant removal method. Which is a proper excess penetrant removal method? a. nonsolvent removable b. vapor degreasing c. brush removable d. water washable d. water washable
65. When retesting visible PT specimens with fluorescent PT: a. Penetrant may bead up on surface b. Retested penetrant indications may be misleading c. Penetrant will lose most of its brilliance d. Penetrant residue can reduce indication brightness d. Penetrant residue can reduce indication brightness
66. Which of the following conditions will decrease the life of an ultraviolet light bulb? a. line voltage fluctuations b. dust on the face of the bulb c. changes in room temperature d. all of the above a. line voltage fluctuations
67. Which statement does not apply to PT developers a. developers are normally highly fluorescent b. developers provide contrasting background c. developers absorb penetrant in discontinuities after the rinse d. developers may be either wet or dry a. developers are normally highly fluorescent
68. Which statements is true? a. sandblasting is an accepted method for surface precleaning b. heat parts before penetrant application. c. excess dryer heating may degrade water washable penetrants d. development dwell should be 2X penetrant dwell c. excess dryer heating may degrade water washable penetrants
69. When using a wet developer: a. a thick developer layer reveals fine cracks better. b. remove excess developer with compressed air c. a black developer shows better contrast than white. d. a thin developer layer reveals fine cracks better d. a thin developer layer reveals fine cracks better
70. Which are false? a. Sandblast surface cleaning is not recommended b. Precleaning surface oil is not needed as penetrants are an oil c. Vapor degreasing removes surface oil d. UV lights need a voltage regulator to control fluctuations b. Precleaning surface oil is not needed as penetrants are an oil
71. A red against white background discontinuity image is most likely to be seen when: a. dry developers are used b. visible dye penetrants are used c. fluorescent PE penetrants are used d. wet developers are used b. visible dye penetrants are used
72. Which of the following can be removed from the surface of a test specimen by vapor degreasing? a. oil b. paint e. phosphate coatings d. oxides a. oil
73. Developer is used on a test specimen to: a. promote penetrant penetration b. absorb emulsifier residues c. to draw penetrant from discontinuities and to provide a contrasting background d. help to dry the surface for better observation c. to draw penetrant from discontinuities and to provide a contrasting background
74. Incorrect crack panels (blocks) use? a. to find a standard reproducable crack size b. to find penetrant's relative sensitivities c. to gauge if penetrant is contaminated d. to find cleaning method to remove surface penetrant a. to find a standard reproducable crack size
75. Generally accepted precaution when using water washable penetrants? a. be sure that part is washed during the rinse step b. be sure that dwell time is not exceeded c. avoid overrinsing the part d. avoid overapplication of emulsifier c. avoid overrinsing the part
76. Most important precaution when doing solvent removable PT? a. avoid excessive emulsifier application b. avoid excessive solvent usage c. avoid insufficient rinse pressure d. use UV light to check excess penetrant rinsing b. avoid excessive solvent usage
77. Insufficient rinsing of fluorescent penetrants will result in: a. subsequent corrosion of the surface b. difficulty in the application of developer c. excessive bleedout d. excessive background fluorescence d. excessive background fluorescence
78. Unneeded PT safety precautions? a. penetrant skin contact may cause irritation b. do not inhale excessive developer powders c. protective clothing and respirators must be worn d. keep flammable penetrants away from flames c. protective clothing and respirators must be worn
79. Penetrant dwell time length? a. varies with penetrant type, component material, sensitivity desired, discontinuities sought b. penetrants penetrate in a matter of seconds, post clean should start ASAP after penetrant applied. c. 3 min d. 10 min a. varies with penetrant type, component material, sensitivity desired, discontinuities sought
80. Which of the following factors will affect resolution of penetrant indications? a. the sensitivity of the penetrant materials used b. the surface condition of the part c. the temperature of the part and or/penetrant d. all of the above d. all of the above
81. A water loss in wet developer mix or over concentration of developer powder can cause: a. a loss of fluorescence during the inspection b. non relevant indications c. cracking developer coating during the drying operation d. none of the above c. cracking developer coating during the drying operation
82. Results of looking into an ultraviolet light? a. it will cause permanent damage to the eyes b. it will cloud the viewer's vision temporarily. c. it will cause temporary total blindness d. none of the above b. it will cloud the viewer's vision temporarily.
83. When using dry developer, the drying operation is performed: a. immediately after removal of excess penetrant b. before the inspection step c. thoroughly d. all of the above d. all of the above
84. Partial acid removal from a part before fluorescent penetrant is applied will result in: a. contamination of the penetrant materials b. a need to double the penetrating time c. a permanent stain on the part d. all of the above a. contamination of the penetrant materials
85. Excess penetrant dwell time during Water Washable PT make penetrant hard to rinse. Normal rinsing properties can be restored by: a. chilling to 40 °F b. heating to 130° F c. redipping the part d. applying wet developer before part rinsing c. redipping the part
86. When drying parts during PT, the parts: a. are dried at room temperature b. are dried by a circulating hot-air dryer c. should be dried in oven at a 54 °C (130 °F) d. should be dried by cool forced air b. are dried by a circulating hot-air dryer
87. Water washable penetrant with water contamination will: a. reduce the penetrating quality of the penetrant b. adversely affect the wash ability of the penetrant c. both a and b are correct d. neither a nor b are correct c. both a and b are correct
88. Which penetrant method is used in portable field inspections? a. the water washable fluorescent penetrant method b. the postemulsification fluorescent penetrant method c. the visible dye penetrant method d. none of the above c. the solvent removable visible penetrant method
89. The actual fluorescent penetrant exam must be performed: a. in a brightly lighted room b. in part temp range: 10 and 79 °C (50 and 175 °F) c. immediately after the developer has been applied d. in a darkened area under an ultraviolet light d. in a darkened area under an ultraviolet light
90. Which of the following penetrants can be used when inspection must take place under ordinary lighting conditions? a. visible dye penetrant b. water washable fluorescent penetrant c. postemulsification fluorescent penetrant d. any of the above a. visible dye penetrant
91. All of the following materials can be effectively tested with liquid penetrant except: a. aluminum b. unglazed ceramics c. glass d. magnesium b. unglazed ceramics
92. Which is a disadvantage of using PT method? a. the PT method adapts to production exams of small parts b. PT can locate fine cracks c. PT is a simple test method d. PT method is not effective at all temperatures d. PT method is not effective at all temperatures
93. A good penetrant must do all of the following except: a. be able to readily penetrate very fine openings b. evaporate very rapidly c. be able to remain in relatively coarse openings d. be easily removed from the surface after testing b. evaporate very rapidly
94. Which is not PT developer property? a. must be absorbent material b. must form thin uniform surface coating c. must be fluorescent if used with fluorescent penetrants d. must not contain harmful or toxic ingredients c. must be fluorescent if used with fluorescent penetrants
95. Developer coatings of excessive thickness: a. may obscure indications b. may aid observing small indications for fluorescent penetrants c. may aid observing small indications for visible penetrants d. do not effect the inspection d. do not effect the inspection
96. Color contrast penetrants are commercially available in which of the following variations? a. normal solvent clean type b. water wash type c. postemulsification type d. all of the above d. all of the above
97. Which is source of false test specimen indications? a. residue from previous liquid penetrant testing b. maehingin oil c. scale, rust and corrosion d. all of the above d. all of the above
98. Part precleaning prior to penetrant exam is: a. not required b. if part not clean, developer cannot be properly applied c. essential as surface contaminants keep penetrant from discontinuities d. required to eliminate nonrelevant indications c. essential as surface contaminants keep penetrant from discontinuities
99. When using fluorescent water washable penetrant, adequate rinsing of the part is assured by: a. timing of rinse cycle b. scrubbing of part surface c. rinsing under ultraviolet light d. using high pressure air with water c. rinsing under ultraviolet light
100. Visible SR tested part reprocessed by flourescent PT? a. developer may remain on the surface causing background b. most visible dyes diminish or destroy fluorescence c. penetrants are not compatible d. interpretation will be difficult b. most visible dyes diminish or destroy fluorescence
101. UV bulbs require suitable filters as: a. too much white light will be present if the filter is not in place b. the human eye may be damaged without it c. the filter filters out undesired wave lengths d. all of above d. all of above
102. A good commercial penetrant should have a: a. low flash point b. high flash point c. medium flash point d. flash point is not a factor to be considered b. high flash point
103. A material that is applied over the surface penetrant film of a part, mixes with the penetrant, and enables the penetrant to be washed off the surface is called: a. an emulsifier b. a penetrant c. a developer d. an isomer a. an emulsifier
104. The time allowed for the penetrant to enter discontinuities that may be present is the: a. emulsification time b. application time c. dwell time d. drain time c. dwell time
105. Which of the following penetrant systems is generally considered to be the most sensitive? a. water washable — visible dye b. solvent removable — visible dye c. water washable — fluorescent dye d. postemulsification — fluorescent dye d. postemulsification — fluorescent dye
106. The best choice of a developer for use on a very smooth surface when using a fluorescent penetrant would be: a. dry — fluffy b. dry — regular c. wet d. none of the above a. dry — fluffy
107. The purpose of an emulsifier is to: a. emulsify penetrant and make it water washable. b. assist the blotting action of the developer c. increase the penetration of the penetrant into fine discontinuities d. eliminate false indications a. emulsify penetrant and make it water washable.
108. Developer assists in the detection of visible liquid penetrant indications by: a. providing a clean surface b. providing a contrasting background c. providing a dry surface d. emulsifying the penetrant b. providing a contrasting background
109. Liquid penetrant examination can detect all of the following types of discontinuities except: a. a forging lap b. a seam c. a surface crack d. subsurface porosity d. subsurface porosity
110. What is the most universally used ultraviolet light? a. incandescent lamps b. metallic carbon arcs c. tubular BL fluorescent lamps d. enclosed mercury-vapor arc lamps d. enclosed mercury-vapor arc lamps
111. Which of the following processes would be most sensitive to detecting very fine defects? a. oil-and-whiting process b. water washable process c. postemulsification process d. water emulsifiable visible dye penetrant process c. postemulsification process
112. When using the PE process, which of the following methods cannot be used? a. dipping the part in the emulsifier b. spraying the part with emulsifier c. pouring emulsifier over the part d. brushing emulsifier on the part d. brushing emulsifier on the part
113. Which of the following would be the most desirable center wavelength for the output of the light source used in fluorescent processes? a. 320 nm b. 365 nm c. 520 nm d. 565 nm b. 365 nm
114. Bleedout of penetrant from a cold shut is an example of: a. a false indication b. a non relevant indication c. a true indication d. none of the above c. a true indication
115. Liquid penetrants become sluggish at temperatures: a. above 38 °C (100 °F) b. between 10° and 38 °C (50 and 100 °F) c. below 10 °C (50°F) d. below 21 °C (70 °F) c. below 10 °C (50°F)
116. Why won't flushing surface in WW penetrant, remove indications? a. developer draws out penetrant b. spray pushes penetrant without dissolving it c. water drops will not enter most defects d. remove penetrant with water dampened cloth c. water drops will not enter most defects
Created by: urbergpm9276