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IP Multicast

Multicast Review

QuestionAnswer
How do Multicast sessions work with Routers? 1) Multicast Request -- IGMP message sent towards Class D Broadcast Address 2) Multicast Data sent -- continual heartbeat messages sent 3) Leave Request -- IGMP request sent to local router to stop multicast streaming to that device
What issues occur with Layer 2 Devices in Multicast? By default, L2 switch treats multicast traffic like an unknown MAC address or a broadcast packet--RESULT: Stream flooded out on every port with connected end station.
What messages are used between Local Multicast Router and Destination (L2 devices/hosts)? How about Network routers up the chain towards source? 1) IGMP messages 2) PIM Messages (PIM = Protocol-Independent Multicast)
What range of addresses are Multicast Link-Local Addresses? 224.0.0.0/24
What range of addresses are Multicast Source-Specific? 232.0.0.0/8
What range of addresses are Multicast GLOP? 233.0.0.0/8
What range of addresses are Multicast Administratively Scoped Addresses? 239.0.0.0/8
What range of addresses are Multicast Globally Scoped Addresses? 224.0.1.0-231.255.255.255 & 234.0.0.0-238.255.255.255
What issue is there with Multicast Addressing at L2? When mapping Class D addresses to MAC addresses, 5 bits are lost. 2^5 = 32 possible MAC addresses per Class D IP address! called the 32:1 Address Overlap issue.
What does IGMP stand for? Internet Group Management Protocol --IGMPv3 is current version
What types of IGMP requests exist? -Membership Query -Membership Report/Join -Leave Group
IGMPv1 lacks what kind of message? Leave Group Leaving accomplished by time out after 3 mins
IGMPv1 header -Version -Type -Unused -Checksum -Group Address (0.0.0.0 for Host Membership Query)
IGMPv2 Header -Type (Combined Version/Type from IGMPv1) -Max Response Time -Checksum -Group Address
What is IGMP Snooping? Mechanism to combat L2 Default flooding response. Allows switches to prune multicast traffic from links not containing a multicast listener.
What two types of Multicast Distribution trees can be setup? -Shortest Path Tree -Shared Tree --Root of Shared Tree located at "Rendezvous Point." Path MAY NOT be optimal!
What two models for PIM routing exist? -Dense Mode (Push Model) -Sparse Mode(Pull Model)
What is the purpose of Multicast RPF? Reverse Path Forwarding -Used to ensure loop-free forwarding of multicast packets
What is a TTL Threshold? Time To Live Threshold -Values set on router interface. Aim is to limit the forwarding of multicast traffic. Packets with TTL > threshold are dropped
Created by: glarsen117