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IP Fundamentals

QuestionAnswer
Good Acronym for 7 Layers of OSI Model All Programmers Seem To Need Data Processing
What are the 7 layers of the OSI Model Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical
1 (Physical) Example Protocols Ethernet, USB, Bluetooth
2 (Data Link) Example Protocols Ethernet, Frame Relay, PPP
3 (Network) Example Protocols IPV4, IPv6, IPX Logical Addressing, Routing, Path Determination
4 (Transport) Example Protocols TCP, UDP, SCTP
5 (Session) Example Protocols NetBIOS, SAP
6 (Presentation) Example Protocols MIME, TLS, SSL Encryption & Compression
7 (Application) Example Protocols FTP, HTTP, Telnet
How does the OSI model map over to the TCP/IP model? Application = Application, Presentation, Session Transport = Transport Internet = Network Link = Data Link & Physical
Benefits of TCP and UDP? TCP (Session-oriented) = Flow Control & Error Correction UDP (Session-less) = Speed
Describe the UDP Header -Source Port -Destination Port -Length -UDP Checksum
UDP Header Length 8 bytes
DNS Function & Protocols Domain Name System -Uses UDP for simple requests/replies to resolve hostnames -Uses TCP for larger messages and zone transfers
DHCP Function & Protocols Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol -Uses UDP to assign dynamic IP addresses to hosts
Describe TCP Header -Source Port -Destination Port -Sequence Number -Offset -Reserved (=0) -Flags -Window -Checksum -Urgent Pointer -Options -Padding
TCP Header Length 4 bytes (32 bits)
BGP Function & Protocols Border Gateway Protocol -Core routing protocol of the Internet -Runs entirely over TCP (maintains table of IP networks)
Port 20, 21 20 = FTP Data 21 = FTP Control
Port 23 Telnet
Port 53 DNS
Port 80 HTTP
Port 143 IMAP
Port 161 SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
Describe IPv4 Packet Structure -Version -Header Length -ToS/DiffServ -Total Length -Identifier -Flags -Fragment Offset -TTL -Protocol -Header Checksum -Source Address -Destination Address -Options -Padding
TCP Flags (6) 1 = Urgent (URG) 2 = Acknowledgemnt (ACK) 3 = Push (PSH) 4 = Reset Connection (RST) 5 = Synchronous (SYN) 6 = Finish (FIN)
IPv4 Address Length 32 bits (4 octets w/ dec = 0-255 range)
Class A N.H.H.H -Big Networks -First bit always 0 (1-126 Range)
Class B N.N.H.H -Medium Networks -First two bits always 10 (128-191 Range)
Class C N.N.N.H -Small Networks -First three bits always 110 (192-223 Range)
224.0.0.0-239.255.255.255 Class D (reserved for Multicast)
240.0.0.0-254.255.255.254 Class E (reserved)
10.0.0.0-10.255.255.255 1 Private Class A Network
172.16.0.0-172.31.255.255 16 Private Class B Networks
192.168.0.0-192.168.255.255 256 Private Class C Networks
What OSI Layer interfaces directly with applications running on devices? 7 - Application
What OSI Layer converts code and reformats data? 6 - Presentation
What OSI Layer coordinates interaction between end-to-end application processes? 5 - Session
What OSI Layer provides end-to-end data integrity and quality of service? 4 - Transport
What OSI Layer switches and routes data to the appropriate network device? 3 - Network
What OSI Layer transfers units of data to the other end of the physical link? 2 - Data Link
What OSI Layer transmits and receives on the network medium? 1 - Physical
IPv4 Minimum Length 20 Bytes (20 octets)
Special Use IP Address Space 0.0.0.0/8 "This" Network 127.0.0.0/8 Loopback 169.254.0.0/16 Link Local 192.0.2.0/24 Test-Net
Class A First Octet Range 1-126
Class B First Octet Range 128-191
Class C First Octet Range 192-223
Class D First Octet Range 224-239
Class E First Octet Range 240-254
Created by: glarsen117
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