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Technical 'GK' Terms

Prep for 2nd Year

Absolute A construction detached grammatically from the main clause of its sentence but modifying the main clause.
Adjectival Functioning like an adjective or similar modifier, i.e. to modify a noun or other substantive.
Adverbial Functioning like an adverb or similar modifier, i.e. to modify a verb. For example, the adverbial use of the participle, when a participle is dependent upon and modifies a main verb.
Agent The individual or thing responsible for performing an action. With an active voice verb, the agent is usually the grammatical subject of the verb. In English, with a passive voice verb the agent is often the one referred to with the word 'by'.
Anarthrous Without the article.
Apodosis The 'then' or consequence clause of a conditional construction, or the independent clause in a sentence which has a conditional-like clause.
Apposition A semantic relationship whereby one item defines another. Distinguished from epexegetical by expressing a relationship for nouns.
Arthrous With the article.
Articular With the article.
Aspect (verbal) A semantic category which governs verb tense-form usage in Greek. A language user chooses to view an action as occurring in a particular way and then selects one of the established verb tense-forms of Greek to convey that meaning.
Asyndeton A construction in which clauses are joined without the use of connecting particles or conjunctions.
Attributive Refers to a syntactical structure whereby a quality or attribute is considered part of what another item is by nature. This is normally reflected syntactically by the attribute falling within the range of the substantive and its article.
Auxiliary (verb) A verb such as eimi which helps another verb, such as a participle, to form a complete verbal unit. Auxiliary verbs are necessary in periphrastic verbal constructions.
Case The use of different forms of a given substantive to show its relations with other words and its roles in basic sentence structure. Greek has nominative, vocative, accusative, genitive and dative cases.
Clause A complete grammatical construction consisting of one or more phrases.
Complement The element which completes a predicate. The complement is often equated with the object of a verb.
Completive Any element which can complete another element. E.g. an object is the completive of a verb; objects of prepositions are completives.
Conjugation The display of forms of a verb.
Conjunction A word that joins other words or clauses, either a 'coordinating conjunction' (and, but, or) or a 'subordinating conjunction' (while, since, as, if, although).
Consequential Describing an action that comes about as a consequence of another, or as an expected result.
Constative A label given to particular verbs or uses of verb tenses (often the aorist) which are said to treat a given action in its entirety or as a whole, from start to finish.
Declension Pattern of various forms of a given substantive indicating gender, number and case.
Definite Article A word modifying a substantive and defining it as particular or unique, 'the'.
Deliberative Referring to thought, consideration or intention.
Demonstrative Words such as 'this, that, these, those'. They are used to point out or indicate particular persons or things being referred to.
Enclitic Descriptive of a small group of words that rely upon the preceding word for their accent. Among enclitic words are the indefinite pronoun, forms of the verb eimi and various particles.
Epexegetic A semantic relationship whereby one item (a word, phrase or even clause) defines another.
Finite Verb Has a subject.
Gnomic Term characterising an event as continuous or recurring over the course of time; normally refers to processes of nature.
Hortatory Characterised by language designed to direct, incite or encourage.
Imperfective A verbal aspect used to describe an action as in progress; expressed by the present and imperfect tenses in Greek.
Inceptive Expressing the beginning of an action.
Inferential Pointing to a logical conclusion to be drawn from another action.
Infinitive embodies the verbal idea in the form of a noun; a verbal noun
Inflection the sets of endings which languages such as Greek attach to their words to distinguish various semantic and syntactical categories and relations
Ingressive expressing the beginning of an action
Instrumental expressing or indicating the means or agent by which an action is accomplished
Intransitive refers to verbs which make complete sense without requiring an object or complement
Iterative expressing repetition of an action
Modal related to mood
Mood the label given to the forms used to indicate the speaker's view of an action's relation to reality - indicative, subjunctive, imperative, optative
Number the distinction in both substantives and verbs between singular and plural
Paradigm a model or pattern, often used to refer to the list of inflected forms of a given morphological category such as a verb or substantive
Participle embodies the verbal idea in the form of an adjective; a verbal adjective
Particle an indeclinable word with grammatical and relational meaning. Prepositions, conjunctions and adverbs
Partitive describing the function of a word or phrase which refers to a part of a larger whole. 'some of the people' uses 'some' partitively
Perfective a verbal aspect used to describe an action as whole or complete; expressed by the aorist verb tense in Greek
Periphrastic (1) describing a verbal construction consisting of the auxiliary verb eimi in its various forms and a participle in appropriate grammatical relation. (2) describing any means by which one statement may be used as a substitute for another
Person a quality of verbs which indicates that the subject is the speaker (1st p), the person spoken to (2nd p) or another person or thing spoken about (3rd p).
Phrase a group of words forming a syntactical unit which may constitute a subject, predicate, complement, and the like. A phrase may consist of only one word.
Postpositive not occurring in first position in a sentence or phrase.
Predicate (1) a structure whereby a quality or attribute is given to another item (2) the functional name for the verbal part of a clause, consisting of a verb phrase
Preposition a word belonging to a group of particles often used to aid the cases in their function by joining a noun phrase to other words in a clause.
Proleptic referring or looking to the future
Protasis the 'if' or supposition clause of a conditional ('if-then') construction, or the dependent clause in a sentence which has conditional-like clause.
Punctiliar expressing momentary or point-like action.
Purpose the intention behind or reason for another action. Purpose often overlaps with result, because to intend an action can mean that something comes about as a result.
Relative Pronoun a pronoun serving to link a subordinate clause to a substantive (implied or expressed). 'The person WHO wrote this...'
Result the results or consequences of another action. Result often overlaps with purpose, becase to bring about a result can mean that an action was intended.
Sentence a syntactical unit consisting of one or more clauses, at least one of them an independent clause.
Subordination the grammatical means by which dependent relations especially between clauses are indicated.
Substantive a term given to any word which may be used like a noun. For example, in Greek, participles, infinitives and especially adjectives, besides nouns, are often used as substantives.
Syntax a grammatical category concerned with the order of words, phrases and other elements, and the meaning relationships they enter into.
Telic describing the intention behind or reason for another action.
Transitive transitive verbs require direct objects to make complete sense.
Voice a semantic category used to describe the relation of the agent to its action. Voice indicates whehter the subject is acting or being acted upon. Active, Middle, Passive
Volitive describes a wish; a volitive is a mild form of command.
Created by: danbyrne



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