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Human Anatomy

Median or Sagital Divides into Right & Left halves
Coronal or Frontal Divides into Front & Back
Transverse or Horizontal Divides Superior & Inferior
Region: Head & Neck Cephalic, Cranial, Cervical, Facial
Cephalic Cranial & Face
Cranial Holds the brain
Facial Face
Region: Anterior Trunk Abdominal, Pelvic, Abdominopelvic, Inguinal, Pectoral, Sternal
Abdominal Lowest rib & pelvis
Pelvic Inside pelvic bones
Abdominopelvic Lowest rib to bottom of pelvis
Inginal Groin between thighs & anterior trunk
Pectoral Chest
Sternal Between Pecs (breastbones)
Region: Posterior Trunk Dorsum, Lumbar, Sacral, Gluteal, Vertebral
Dorsum Back of thorax
Lumbar Low back lowest rib to pelvis
Sacral sacrum between butt
Gluteal Butt
Vertebral Spine
Region: Lateral Trunk Axillary, Coxal
Axillary Armpits
Coxal Hips
Region: Inferior Trunk Genital, Perineal
Genital Exterior reproductive organs
Perineal Small region between anus and genital
Region: Upper Extremity Antebrachial, Brachial, Antecubital, Cubital, Oleccranal, Carpal, Digital
Antebrachial Forearm
Brachial Upper Arm
Antecubital Anterior elbow
Cubital Posterior elbow
Olecranal Posterior surface elbow
Carpal Wrist
Digital Fingers
Region: Lower Extremity Crural, Digital, Femoral, Patellar, Pedal, Plantar, Popliteal, Sural
Crural Anterior surface of leg
Digital Toes
Femoral Thigh
Patellar Anterior portion of knee
Pedal Foot
Plantar Sole of foot
Popliteal Posterior portion of knee joint
Sural Calf
Dorsal Cavity Cranial Cavity(contains brain) Vertebral Cavity (Contains spinal cord)
Ventral Cavity Thoracic Cavity (contains heart & lungs) Abdominopelvic Cavity (contains digestive viscera, bladder, reproductive organs & rectum)
Thoracic cavity Superior Mediastinum Pleural Cavity Pericardial Cavity (mediastinum) Diaphragm
Abdominal Cavity Digestive viscera
Pelvic Cavity Bladder, reproductive organs, rectum
Meninges Line the Dorsal Cavities (cranial & vertabral)
Ventral Cavities have how many membranes? Two. Parietal & Visceral
Parietal Membranes Line the walls of ventral cavities
Visceral Membranes line the organs.
The space between the parietal & visceral membranes is filled with? Serous solution (thick, sterile lubricant)
In Thoracic Cavity, lungs are covered by membrane called? Visceral Pleurae
Cavity walls are lined by membrane called? Parietal Pleurae
Space between the Visceral & Parietal Pleurae is filled with serous fluid and is called? Pleural Cavity
Right & Left Thoracic cavity is divided by? Mediastinum
Mediastinum heart, Trachea, Esophagus, Thymus Gland
Pleural Effusion Buildup of fluid between the visceral & parietal pleurae
Two types of Pleural Effusion Transudative - From increased pressure or low protein content in blood vessels. Common cause is Congestive Heart Failure. Exudative - Blocked blood vessels due to inflammation, trauma, or drug reastions.
Heart is covered tightly by? Visceral Pericardium
Heart is loosely covered by? Parietal Pericardium
The space between visceral and parietal percardium is? Pericardium cavity which is filled with serous fluid.
Paricarditis Inflammation of the pericardium. Causes - idiopathic, infection or post surgical.
Three layers of meninges around brain and spinal cord. Dura Layer - Outer most layer, tough fibrous tissue Arachnoid Layer - Spider web apprearance. Sub arachnoid space where cerebrospinal fluid is. Pia matter - Attached to brain. Thin fragile.
Epidural Anesthesia Catheter placed in Eidural space. Drugs are continually pumped into block pain.
Subdural Hematoma Blood gathers between the dura matter and the arachnoid space. Bleeding from veins. Increase in intracranial pressure. Damage to brain.
Serous membranes of the abdominal cavity are called? Peritoneum
Parietal Peritoneum lines the walls of the abdominal cavity. Does not line the Pelvic region. Kidneys are retroperitoneal.
Visceral Peritoneum Covers the abdominal organs. This peritoneum folds up on itself to form a double layer of visceral peritoneum.
Messenteries Double layer of visceral peritoneum. Provides support for the organs, connects intestine to posterior wall of the cavity
Omentum Peritoneum The largest fold. Hangs over the intestines and protects the abdominal organs.
Peritonitis Infection of the pritoneum. Common cause is perforation of the gastro intestinal tract.
Metabolism All the chemical reactions necessary for life
Anabolism Build
Catabolism Break down
source of energy & raw materials to build with food
environment for chemical reactions water
needed to convert nutrients into energy oxygen
necessary for chemical reactions body temperature
allow for breathing atmospheric pressure
Homeostasis the process of maintaining balance
The smallest unit of an element Atom
2 or more atoms chemically combined. Smallest unit of a compound Molecules
The primary structural & functional unit of the body Cells
Group of smaller cells performing a similar function Tissues
A structure formed of 2 or more tissues that performs specific functions Organs
A group of organs that work in a coordinated fashion to carry out specific functions Organ system
Highest organizational level Organism
three parts of a Atom Electrons Protons Neutrons
Electrons outer shells (valance) negative charge
Protons Inside nucleus Positive charge
Neutrons Inside nucleus No charge
Most stable (least reactive) of the gases because it has the right number of electrons in its valance Noble gases
What has two electrons only? Helium
A radioactive, colorless, tasteless & odorless gas. One of the heaviest & most dense elements that can be a gas. Product of decay of Uranuim Radon
The number of Protons & Electrons are the same. Isotopes
Radioisotope some isotopes are not happy so they release radiation as they breakdown to a more stable & happy nucleus
three molecular bonds? covalent Ionic Hydrogen
Covalent bond Strongest bond, sharing of electrons in outer shells
Ionic bond One atom give an electron. The other receives the electron, creating two atoms with opposite charges (opposites attract)
Hydrogen Bond Hydrogen covalent bond with Oxygen or Nitrogen leaves the Hydrogen atom slightly positive.
molecular formula simple way to write the molecule
60% of human body is made up of what? water
Universal Solvent This means simply many substances dissolve in it easily. - Fluid inside the cell 65% water Extracellular Fluid (ECF) - Fluid not inside the cells 35% Interstitial Fluid - Water in tiny spaces between cells Plasma - Fluid part of blood
Intracellular Fluid (ICF) Fluid inside the cell is 65%
Extracellular Fluid (ECF) Fluid not inside the cell is 35%
Interstitial Fluid Water in tiny spaces between cells
Plasma Fluid part of blood.
Created by: umeunhae
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