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Patho 2 Final pulmon


The 6th leading cause of death in the USA Pneumonia
Most lethal infection Pneumonia
Acute infection of the lower reps tract caused by bacteria and viruses (also fungi, protozoa, parasites) leading to consolidation of involved lung pneumonia
pneumonia effecting a lobe lobar pneumonia
pneumonia effecting a more diffuse aea bronchopneumoni
what usually causes community acquired pneumonia pneumococcus
why usually causes nosocomial pneumonia P. aeruginosa
what are the normal defensive mechanisms for getting rid of microorg in the lungs cough, mucociliary clearance, phagocytosis.
Once a microorg that is not expelled reaches the lungs, it initiates ________response with an ______ which causes alveolar_____ inflammatory response exudate edema
Infiltration with _______ and ________ usually lead to resolution of the inflammation process in PNA neutrophils and phagocytocis
________ PNA is usually mild but can set the stage for secondary bacterial infection viral
clinical manifestations of PNA fever, chills, cough, asthenia, anorexia, pleural pain, dyspnea, hemoptysis, leukocytosis, neutrophilia. CXR-infiltrates involving single lobe or diffuse area
Frequently PNA is preceded by an _______ URTI
pathogen of PNA is identified via sputum characteristics, staining and cultures
to avoid contamination the sputum is collected via _______ ______ transtracheal aspiration or bronchoscopy or lung biopsy
treatment of bacterial PNA is ________ treatment of viral PNA is _________ Proper __________ is important and may need mech vent and O2 Abx supportive therapy hydration
highly contagious infection caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis TB
An acid-fast bacillus which usually affects the lungs but may invade other body systems and organs. mycobacterium tuberculosis
worldwide it is the leading cause of death from a curable infectious disease! TB
this disease is transmitted from person to person in airborne droplets, lodges in the lungs, multiplies and causes non-specific pneumonitis TB
which lobe does TB usually first effect? upper
TB can migrate through the _____________ and lodge in the _______ __________ triggering the immune response with ___________ and _________ lymphatics lymph nodes inflammation phagocytosis
in TB exposure inflammation and phagocytosis isolate the bacilli, preventing their spread and sealing off their colonies creating a _______ ___________ with caseation necrosis inside granulomatose lesion (tubercle)
what type of scar tissue grows around the tubercle to isolate the microorg with no further multiplication collagenous scar tissue
TB may remain dormant for life, but if the ______ ________ is impaired active decease occurs and may spread to other organs immune system
example of impaired immune systems aids, poor nutritional state, long-term steroi therapy, chronic debilitating disease
Live _______ can escape in the bronchi and cause TB to become active bacilli
many infected individuals are ________ and others develop s/s so gradually that they notice them when the disease is __________ asymptomatic advanced
common manifestations of TB (9) fatigue, weight loss, anorexia, lethargy, low grade fever (usually in afternoons), cough c purulent sputum, dyspnea, CP, hemoptysis
how is TB diagnosed? Positive TB skin test, sputum cultcher and CXR
the positive skin test proves that the individual has been ________ to the _________ and developed antibodies against it. exposed bacillus
what type of stain can TB be seen with under the microscope? acid-fast stain
what will the CXR show in TB nodules, calcifications, cavities and enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes.
if a pt has no exposure, no TB and no infection--what type of TB grade are they? 0
if a pt has EXPOSURE TO TB, NO INFECTION what type of TB grade are they 1
if a pt has TB infection and no disease what grade are they 2
if a pt has TB and clinically active disease, what grade are they? 3
if a pt has TB and not clinically active disease, what grade are they 4
if TB is suspected what grade are they? 5
what is Cor Pulmonale pulmonary heart disease-cardiac disorder 2/2 pulmonary pathologic condition
Acute Cor pulmonale results from PE where emboli usually originated from thrombi in the leg--occlude plum artery supply
clinical s/s of acute Cor pulmonale profound shock, hypotension, tachypnea, tachy, severe pulm HTN, CP, fever, leukocytosis and hempotysis-----IMMINENT DEATH
chronic clinical s/s of Cor pulmonale RV dilation, hypertrophy 2/2 long-term pulmonary HTN caused by disorders of the lung (bronchitis or emphysema) or thoracic wall
does plum HTN have increased or decreased pulmonary resistsance increased
does pulmonary HTN increase or decrease RV afterload increase
does plum HTN increases or decrease RV workload, and what dose this lead to increases RV workload leading to dilation and hypertrophy of the myocardial wall until if fails
clinical manifestations of pulmonary HTN CP, peripheral eema, hepatic congestion, altered tricuspid and pumonic valve sounds, hepatomegaly, jugular distention
what is diagnosis of plum HTN based on? physical and radiological exams, keg, echo
what is treatment of pulmonary HTN aimed towards decreasing RV workload and reversal of the underlying lung disease
Created by: melrunt