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Renal phys 557

The kidneys are located on the ___________ wall of the abdomen. posterior
Medial side or indented side is the _______ region in which arteries, veins, lymphatics, nerve supply, and ureters are located. hilum
What are the two regions of the bisected kidney? cortex and inner medulla
What are the cone shaped masses in the medulla called? renal pyramids
The urinary bladder is a __________ muscle chamber and is composed of two parts. smooth
The ______ constitutes most of the bladder and is responsible for collecting the urine that is formed in the kidneys. body
The ______ is the other part of the bladder that is funnel shaped and connects with the urethra. neck
The smooth muscle of the bladder is called the ___________ ___________. detrusor muscle
What reflex controls emptying of the bladder? micturition reflex
The micturition reflex is an _________ spinal cord reflex. autonomic
Lying immediately above the bladder neck is an area called the ______ of the bladder. trigone
What part of the nervous system at L2 controls the body and trigone of the bladder? sympathetic
This part of the nervous system at S2,3 and this nerve controls the bladder neck and external sphincter? parasympathetic, pudendal
Peristaltic contraction in the ureter are enhanced by ____________ stimulation and inhibited by ___________ stimulation. parasympathetic, sympathetic
About how much CO do the kidneys receive? about 20% or 1100ml/min
What reflex prevents excessive flow of fluid into the pelvis of the kidney when the ureter is blocked? ureterorenal reflex
Renal artery enters via hilum and branches into the interlobar arteries, arcuate arteries, and afferent arterioles which lead to the __________ capillaries. glomerular
Where does urine formation begin? glomerular capillaries
The distal ends of the glomerular capillaries come together to form the ___________ arterioles which lead to a second capillary network called the peritubular capillaries that actually surround the renal tubules. efferent
______ hydrostatic pressure in the glomerular capillaries causes rapid fluid filtration whereas lower hydrostatic pressure in the peritubular capillaries permits fluid ______________. high, reabsorption
What is the functional unit of the kidney? nephron
How many nephrons are in each kidney? 800K - 1 million
The kidney cannot regenerate new nephrons. T/F T
Each nephron contains glomerular capillaries called the ___________ through which large amounts of fluids are filtered from the blood, and a long tubule in which filtered fluid is converted to urine on its way to the renal pelvis of the kidney. glomerulus
The glomerular capillaries are covered by epithelial cells that are encased in ____________ ___________. bowmans capsule
Fluid filtered through the glomerular capillaries flow into bowmans capsule and then into the proximal tubule which lies where in the kidney? the cortex
From the proximal tubule, the fluid enters the ______ _ _____, which dips into the renal medulla. loop of henle
The ascending limb of the loop of Henle has a group of specialized cells called _________ _________ that play an important role in the function of the nephron. macula densa
The collecting ducts empty into the _________ __________ through the tips of the renal papillae. renal pelvis
What are the components of the nephron? 1. glomerulus 2. bowman's capsule 3. tubule system
Glomerulus is ____- permeable and allow water and wastes to be excreted from bowmans capsule as urine. semi
What is the primary filtering device of the nephron? bowmans capsule
What percentage of water and sodium that enters bowmans capsule is absorbed in the proximal tubule? 70%
The loop of henle consists of ____________ & ___________ sections. ascending and descending
The descending segment is ________ permeable to water. highly
How many sections make up the ascending segment of the loop of henle? 3
What section of the ascending loop does solute and solvent absorption occur in? thin ascending limb
Where do loop diuretics work? the loop of henle
What is the relative constancy of GFR and renal blood flow referred to as? autoregulation
In order to perform autoregulation, the kidneys have a feedback mechanism that links changes in _______________ ____________ concentration at the macula densa with the control of renal arteriole resistance. sodium chloride
What makes up the juxtaglomerular apparatus? macula densa and juxtaglomerular cells
The macula densa cells contain _________ ___________ which are a type of intracellular organelles. golgi apparatus
Golgi apparatus are __________ _____________ and are thought to secrete a substance directed toward the arterioles. secretory organelles
What is another mechanism that contributes to the maintenance of a relatively constant renal blood flow and GFR? myogenic mechanism
High _________ intake is known to increase renal blood flow and GFR. protein
Urine formation is a result of 3 different processes that occur in the renal system, which are: glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, and tubular secretion
Small changes in glomerular filtration or tubular reabsorption can cause ________ changes in urinary excretion. large
Unlike, glomerular filtration, renal tubular reabsorption is a _________ selective process. highly
What increases the surface area of tubules? microvilli
Microvilli only appear on the surface of ____________ tubules. proximal
Filtrate can pass through the tubule cells either by ______ transport, _______ transport, or by________. active, passive, osmosis
____________ forces pertain to the pressure of liquids in equilibrium, therefore, the water moves back into the blood to achieve equilibrium. hydrostatic
The _________ pressure moves the water froma region of low solute concentration to a region of high solute concentration in order to achieve equilibrium. osmotic
Active transport through the tubular cells is accomplished by use of ____, which is the energy source. ATP
What depends on active transport when it is reabsorbed across the tubular epithelial cells? glucose
Solutes are reabsorbed or secreted across the renal tubular cells through the ____________ pathway or the solutes can be reabsorbed across the renal tubular cells by moving across the tight junctions via the _____________ __________. transcellular pathway, paracellular pathway
What solute can move through by either the paracellular or transcellular pathway? sodium
Two or more substances may interact with a specific membrane protein that transports them across the membrane and this type of transport system is known as: secondary active transport system
Large molecules of protein are reabsorbed by a process of "pinching off", which is: pinocytosis
In this condition glucose spills over into the urine because the load exceeds the transport. diabetes mellitus
The proximal tubular cells are highly metabolic and have high amounts of _____________ to support active transport. mitochondria
What percentage of filtered water is reabsorbed by the loop of henle and most of this occurs in the thin descending limb of the loop of henle. 20%
The thin and thick portions of the ascending limb are impermeable to water and this is a characteristic that is important for ________________ of urine. concentration
What is the site of action for the powerful loop diuretics lasix, edecrin, and bumex? the thick portion of the ascending limb of the loop of henle
The thick segment of the ascending loop of henle empties into the _______ tubule. distal
The first portion of the distal tubule forms the ___________ ___________. macula densa
The second part of the distal tubule and the cortical collecting tubule reabsorb __________ and water from the lumen and secrete ___________ ions into the lumen. sodium, potassium
The distal tubule and cortical collecting tubule contain what two different cell types? principal cells and intercalated cells
__________ cells reabsorb sodium and water from the lumen and secrete potassium into the lumen. Principal
The ___________ cells reabsorb potassium ions and secrete hydrogen ions into the tubular lumen. intercalated
The principal cells are the ____________ sites of action for the potassium sparing diuretics. primary
The intercalated cells secrete hydrogen ions and is mediated by the ________-_________ transporter. hydrogen-ATPase
The permeability of the late distal tubule and cortical collecting duct to water is controlled by the concentration of _______. ADH
With high levels of ADH, these tubular segments are ___________ to water, but in the absence of ADH, they are ________________ to water. permeable, impermeable
The medullary collecting duct reabsorbs less than ___% of the filtered water and sodium. 10
What is the final site for processing the urine and play an important role in determining the final output of water and solutes? medullary collecting duct
Small increases in ABP can cause marked increases in urinary excretion of sodium and water. What is this phenomenon known as? Pressure Natriuresis and Pressure Diuresis
When GFR autoregulation is impaired, increases in ____ can cause much larger increases in GFR. ABP
A major site of action for ________ is on the principal cells of the cortical collecting tubule. aldosterone
What disease is characterized by the absence of aldosterone, therefore having a marked loss of sodium and increased amounts of potassium. addisons
What disease states occur or cause excess aldosterone, where sodium is retained and potassium levels are decreased? adrenal tumors, Conn's disease
Aldosterone is more important as a regulator of ______ concentration than for its ________ concentration. potassium
What is the body's most powerful sodium-retaining hormone? angiotensin II
Angiotensin II stimulates ______________ secretion, which in turn increases sodium reabsorption. aldosterone
Angiotensin II constricts the ______________ arterioles and results in sodium and water reabsorption. efferent
Angiotensin II directly stimulates __________ reabsorption in the proximal tubules, loops of henle, distal tubules, and collecting tubules. sodium
The ________ ______________ of a substance is the volume of plasma that is completely cleared of the substance by the kidneys per unit time. renal clearance
GFR can be calculated by administering what substance? inulin
What is a by-product of muscle metabolism and is cleared from the body fluids almost entirely by glomerular filtration? creatinine
The clearance of creatinine can also be used to assess what? GFR
What is the most commonly used method by which kidney function is quantified? GFR
When there is an absence of ADH, is urine dilute or concentrated? dilute
Inside the cells of the collecting ducts there are specialized vesicles that have highly water permeable pores known as what? aquaporins
Near or in the hypothalamus are modified neuron receptors called what? osmoreceptors
What stimulates ADH secretion; increased or decreased blood volume? decreased
What is stimulated by the baroreceptor signal and synthesizes ADH? hypothalamus
Where is ADH released from? the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland
Large numbers of bicarbonate ions HCO3 are filtered continuously into the tubules, and if they are excreted into the urine, this removes base from the blood, hence the urine is _________. basic
_____________ ___________ results from decrease ventilation and increased PCO2. Respiratory acidosis
______________ ______________ results from increased ventilation and decreased PCO2. Respiratory alkalosis
Metabolic ____________ results from decreased extracellular fluid HCO3 concentration. acidosis
Metabolic _____________ results from increased extracellular fluid HCO3 concentration. alkalosis
What organ is the primary source of urea? liver
Durin protein catabolism, what is produced? ammonia
The liver converts the ammonia to _____, which helps prevent the build up of ammonia levels in the body. urea
The _____ is directly related to protein metabolism. BUN
What is normal BUN? 10-20mg/dl
What may be indicative of starvation or liver disease? low BUN
What is a product of muscle metabolism? Creatinine
Serum creatinine is directly related to ______. GFR
What is normal male creatinine? 0.8-1.3mg/dl
What is normal female creatinine? 0.6-1.0 mg/dl
What is the passage of solvent through a semipermiable membrane that separates solutions of different concentrations? Movement is from lower to higher concentrations. osmotic/osmosis
This word is defined as: concerning, caused, or marked by swelling: oncotic
Osmotic concentration, the characteristic of a solution determined by the ionic concentration of the dissolved substances per unit solvent. osmolality
This pertains to the pressure of liquids in equilibrium and that exerted on liquids? hydrostatic
Created by: Jmw015