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STNA Infections

Basic Infection Control Terminology

Normal Flora Micro-organisms that help the body to function
Pathogen Micro-organism that causes disease
Bacilli Rod-Shaped bacteria
Cocci Round shaped bacteria
Diplococci Round bacteria in pairs
Streptococci Round bacteria in chains
Staphylococci Round bacteria in clusters
Spirochete Cork-screw shaped bacteria
Vibrio Bacteria shaped like curved rods
Virus Smallest pathogen, small bundles of protein.
Fungi Plant-like organisms including mold & yeast
Helminths Parasitic worm-like organisms
Aerobic Requires oxygen to live
Anaerobic Does not require oxygen to live
Infection Illness caused by a pathogen
Reservoir Place where pathogen lives
Portal of Exit How pathogen leaves the reservoir
Vector Method of transmission involving a bite from a living creature
Foamite A non-living object that has been contaminated by a pathogen
Direct Contact Person-to-person transmission of a pathogen
Indirect Contact Person-to-object transmission of a pathogen
Vehicle Injection or ingestion of a substance contaminated by a pathogen
Antiseptic Agent that inhibit the growth of some microorganisms on skin. Not effective against spores or viruses.
Disinfectant Agent that inhibit the growth of some microorganisms on surfaces. Usually not effective against spores or viruses.
Surgical Asepsis or Sterilization Practices that keep an object or area completely free of microorganisms.
Universal or Standard Precautions Policy to treat all body fluids as if they are infected.
Airborne Precautions Used for diseases that are spread by small droplets in the air
Droplet Precautions For diseases spread in close range with large droplets spread from cough or sneeze
Contact Precautions For diseases spread by contact with patient or items soiled by the pt.
Double Bagging Method of removing contaminated items from a room by placing items in one red bag, then having a helper assist in placing bag inside another red bag.
Contaminated Object that may contain pathogens (also called "dirty")
Signs of Infection Redness, swelling, pain, warmth, inability to move part of body, increased TPR, changes in urine/stool/appetite
Incidence The range of occurrence or the disease’s tendency to affect certain groups more often than others.
Virulence The ability of a pathogen to cause disease.
Herd Immunity When a pathogen infects a large number of people, those that do not die will be immune. Then there are fewer hosts available to infect, so the disease will die out.
Communicable Can be transmitted from one person to another (also called contagious or infectious)
Idiopathic Disease of unknown cause
Nosocomial or Healthcare Associated Infection (HAI) Infectious disease acquired in a healthcare facility
Opportunistic Disease that appears in a host that is weakened.
Epidemic When many people in a given region acquire a specific disease at the same time
Endemic When a disease is found in a few people in a given region almost continually
Pandemic When a disease is prevalent throughout an entire country, continent, or the world
Etiology Study of causation or the theory of a disease’s origin
Genetic Born with an inherited disease
Congenital Present at birth
Antibodies Specialized proteins that help body fight off diseases
Created by: mrskgo