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Ch 1-6

1854, The Crimean War, _____ _____ contributions in public health and epidemiology were among the first nursing efforts to fight disease. Florence Nightingale’s
Nightingale stated that air, light, nutrition, and adequate ventilation and space assist the patient to recuperate. Mortality rate went from____ to ____. 47% to 2%.
She became known as the lady with the lamp b/c she’d walk around at night providing care to the sick and wounded. Florence Nightingale
Identify Florence Nightingale's five major contributions to the profession of nursing. nursing as a distinct profession, broad-based liberal education for nurses, Major reforms in the delivery of care in hospitals, introduction of standards to control the spread of disease in hospitals,Major reforms in healthcare for the military
During the Civil War rather than at base hospitals far removed from the battlefield, _____set up tents close to the fighting and did not discriminate against north or south, black or white Clara Barton
_____ & ______ 1893 founded the Henry Street Settlement in New York to improve the health and social conditions of poor immigrants. This is considered the start of public health nursing Lillian Wald & Mary Brewster
The earliest nurses were priests and priestesses who treated the ill with a combination of physical_____, _______ and _____. care, prayer, and magic spells
____B.C.E – the nurses of that period were always men who were part of a priestly order. 1200
The oldest existing hospital in Lyons, France was founded on ______. Christianity
Early Christianity did benefit nursing by____ _____,____ ______, and honoring the service provided by nurses. creating orders, establishing hospitals
Among the crusaders were______, specialized soldiers who at the end of the battle returned to outposts to care for the sick and injured. hospitalers
Injectable penicillin came into use during____, allowing soldiers to survive injuries that would’ve been fatal in the past, but only ____ and _____in the field could administer the drugs. WWII, doctors and medics
What is the significance understanding germ theory, infectious diseases, microscopes & antibiotics to the evolution of nursing practice & science? Prior to this understanding in the 19th century, people who entered nursing placed themselves at risk for exposure to diseases that were poorly understood and couldn’t be cured.
define independent intervention does not require a provider’s order, based on knowledge and skills, performed in response to a nursing diagnosis, nurse is accountable for this independent intervention
define dependent intervention prescribed by a physician or advanced practice nurse, but carried out by bedside nurse.
dependent intervention are usually orders for: diagnostic tests, medications, treatment, IV therapy, diet and activity.
In a dependent intervention a nurse is responsible for: assessing the need for the order, explaining activities to patient, evaluation of effectiveness
PES problem, etiology, symptoms
QSEN Quality and Safety Education for Nurses
6 competencies for nurses: Patient centered care, teamwork & collaboration, evidence-based practice, quality improvement, safety, & information.
reason for PICO helps nurses’ state research topics in a way to weed out the irrelevant results, but not to narrow it down so much as to not get any results
P(PICO) Patient population or problem
I(PICO) Intervention, treatment, cause & contributing factor
C(PICO) Comparison intervention
O(PICO) Outcome
Inductive reasoning Moves from the specific to the general
Deductive reasoning starts a general premise and moves to a specific deduction.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, starting at the most basic need and example: Physiological(H2O), Safety & Security(emotional), Love & belonging(meaningful relationships), Esteem & self-esteem(pride), Cognitive(knowledge), Aesthetic(beauty), Self-actualization (reaching potential)
The Nursing Process Assessment, Diagnosis, Planning, Implementation, Evaluation
the data gathering stage Assessment
identify the client’s needs (usually stated in the form of a problem) based on careful review of your assessment data Diagnosis
the finished product of the planning phases it a holistic nursing care plan, individualized to reflect the client’s problems and strengths Planning
step which you work with the client to decide goals for your care – that is, the client outcomes you want to achieve through your nursing activities Planning outcomes
phase which you develop a list of interventions based on your nursing knowledge and choose those most likely to help the client to achieve the stated goals Planning interventions
action phase. When you carry out or delegate the actions that you previously planned Implementation
final phase. You determine whether the desired outcomes have been achieved, and judge whether your actions have successfully treated or prevented the client’s health problems Evaluation
instructions that describe how and when nursing interventions are to be implemented other nurses and nursing assistive personnel are responsible and accountable for implementation nursing orders
Nursing orders 5 parts date order was written, subject:the nurse is the subject of the order, action verb:tells nurse what action to take, times and limits:when, how often, how long the activity is to be done, signature
______ ______care plan detail the nursing care that is usually needed for a particular nursing diagnosis or for all nursing diagnoses that commonly occur with a medical condition. Standardized nursing
____ _____is often used in managed care systems. Outcome-based, interdisciplinary plans that sequence patient care according to case type. They specify predicted patient ______ and _____ _____for each day/hr. The describe the minimal standard of care. Critical pathway, outcomes and broad interventions
_____cover specific actions usually required for a clinical problem unique to a subgroup of patients. Protocols
Physical Assessment produces primarily objective data
observation and visual examination of the client as well as use of equipment such as an otoscope or ophthalmoscope Inspection
light touch, progressing to deeper touch, using the pads of your fingers Palpation
striking a body surface with the tip of a finger, which produces different vibrations and sounds depending on what is under the area that is tapped Percussion
listening with the unaided ear for sounds made by the client and listening with the use of a stethoscope for normal and abnormal sounds within the body Auscultation
info communicated to the nurse by the client, family, or community. Reveals the perspective of the person giving the data, and unclose thoughts, feelings, and beliefs, and sensations. Subjective data
gathered through a physical assessment or from laboratory or diagnostic test. They can be measured or observed by the nurse or other healthcare providers. Used to validate subjective data Objective data
____ data are the objective and subjective data obtained from the client: what the client says or what you observe Primary data
______data: are obtained “secondary,” from example, from the medical record or from another caregiver Secondary
relatively unchanging info; name, gender, race, age, religion, marital status, and occupation Biographical data
Chief Compliance/Reason for Seeking Healthcare this is the Pt’s reason for seeking medical or nursing advice
in-depth exploration of the client’s chief complaint. Find out when the illness or problem began, whether the onset was sudden or gradual, how often it occurs, what makes it worse , and what the pt does to relieve it History of Present Illness
Client’s perception of health status and expectations for care includes the client’s knowledge about his illness and it potential effects on his life
includes childhood disease and immunizations, previous hospitalizations, and previous surgeries Past Health history
includes data on first-degree blood related relatives such as mother, father, siblings, and maternal and paternal grandparents Family History
includes info about family and other relationships, economic status, occupations, exposure to toxic materials, home and neighborhood conditions, ethnicity. Also includes alcohol, tobacco, and drug use Social History
_____interviewing: to obtain factual, easily categorized info or in an emergency situation. This type of interview you control the topics and ask mostly closed questions. Directive
_____techniques means you allow the patient to control the subject matter. Your role is to clarify, summarize, and ask mostly open-ended questions that facilitate thought and communication Nondirective
NANDA –____ ____ ____ ___ ____, founded in _____. 2001 NANDA I (Nanda _______). North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, 1973, International
Nursing diagnosis human responses unique to each ____while a medical diagnosis remains the same as long a particular ____ or ____is present. person, injury or pathology
_____ _____are certain physiologic complications of diseases, medical treatments, or diagnostic studies that nurses monitor to detect onset or change in status. Collaborative problems
Collaborative problems are determined by the____ ____ or ____. medical diagnosis or pathology
_____(1978, 1984) Caring theory. Focuses on caring as cultural competence using the knowledge of cultures and of nursing to provide culturally congruent and responsible care. Leininger
____ (1979) Caring theory. Nursing is an interpersonal process. Watson
Created by: BrandiLynn
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