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Oncology Skills

Oncology Skills for a Practical Nurse

Neoplasm uncontrolled or abnormal growth of cells that can either be benign or malignant
Metastasis the process by which tumor cells are spread to different parts of the body, cancer cells move from primary site, to a secondary site, where they may grow in the area
ways metastasis can occur by what ways direct spread of tumor cellsby diffusion to other body cavaties circulation by way of blood and lymphatic channels transportation or direct transport of cells from one site to another
What is the role of Tcells in preventing cancer? serve as the primary cells of the immune system, if they become low they can not fight off the abnormal cells as well
conditions that can suppress T cell function and increase the risk of cancer age, drugs, alcohol, serious infections, certain diseases- like bone and lymph tissue
carcinoma malignant tumors composed of epitheal cells which have a tendency to metastasize
sarcoma malignant tumor of muscle, bines, & organs usually presenting painless swelling
Excisional biopsy removal of the complete lesion
incisional biopsy removal of a portion of tissue
needle/aspiration biopsy aspiration of fluid or tissue through means of a needle
Interventions for skin care in an area receiving radation therapy Do not wash off markings, if area becomes wet, dry off immediately, do not use lotion, ointments, or powder unless ok w/ Dr Protect radtiation area from direct sunlight, avoid hot or cold application, encourage high protien and high calorie diet
Hpw dpes a Pap smear detect cancer If cancer cells are present they are shed and are collected then identified under a microscope
Biopsy the removal of a small piece of living tissue for examination to confirm Dx
what is a major side effect of unsealed internal radiation causes pt & pt body fluids to become radioactive
activity restrictions for pt with vaginal radiation inplant pt. must remain on bedrest, do not turn from side to side, do not tuen on abdomen, HOB never lower than 45 degrees
How is a bed bath and linen change different for a radition implant pt? change linens on ly when wet and bath patient from the waist up
What should you do if the radiation device becomes dislodged?? notify the Radiologist, DO
How should you asses the mouth for stomatitis use a pen light, tounge balde and look for lesions, ulcers, & white plaque in mouth
How will you teach a pt to preform effective, gentle mouth care? pt. use soft toothbrush, rinse mouth out with NS or sodium bicarbonate Q 2-4 hours
Nursing measures to prevent skin infection clean folds of skin BID w/ soap and water, apply water soluable moisturizer, moniter IV sites for erytherma, drainage, pain, or edema, Administer meds PO instead of Injections, cleanse wound w/ occlusive dressing until healed
how should you assess for impending lung infection? changes in lung sounds, resp rate, resp rhythm, and effort of breath
assessments of urine and bowel function to help prevent infection color, consistency & presence of blood, changes in bowel habits & if they are starining to pass stool, avoid enemas, rectal suppositories, retal thermometers
Explain how anemia affects the pt. w/ CA fatigue results decreases oxygenation to tissues from decreased hemoglobin
Waht is Thrombocytopenia a common side effect of chemotherapy
nursing measurses to prevent injury and hemmorrage keep mouth clean and free of debris , apply direct pressure to bleeding for 5-10 minutes, use soft toothbrush or swab for mouth care, avoid intrusion into the rectum, use an electric razor, avoid blowing nose frequently, avoid trama fallsbumps and bruises
part # 2 nursing measurses to prevent injury and hemmorrage avoid th euse of aspirin or aspirin containing products, use adaquate lubricant and gentleness during sexual intercourse
What is alopecia loss of hair due to the destruction of the hair follicles
How should a chemotherapy pt. be educated about alopecia give info on hair loss and encourage pt. to to see a hair stylist, inform pt of scalp protection, pt. w/ long hair may want to trim or cut short so it is not such a radical change when the hair falls out
nursing measures for a pt. experiencing nausea and vomiting put a cool cloth on throat and head, administer anti-emetics, use low lighting, have pt. sip carbonated beverages, assess for symptoms of fluid and electrolyte imbalance, remove odors promptly,
nursing measures used to assist CA pt. w/ nutritional problems small fequent meals, in between meal supplements, try to find out what foods they like and dislike and make them available, encourage liquids, be prepared to assist w/ TPN if it becomes necessary
Nursing measures to prevent infection in the bone marrow Use protective isolation or laminar airflow, Prophylactic antibiotics and antivirals, routine blood cultures, rutine stool and urine culture, routine throat culture
General saftey guidlines to use when caring for a pt. w/ internal radation therapy Plan ahead to minimize time spent in pt. room, stand away from part of pt. body where rad device is implanted,wear a lead apron if you will be having direct prolonged contact near the radiated site
What is a general guide line for the amount of time to spend in a pt room w/ internal radiation therapy? NO more than 10 minytues
What is the guideline for how far from the pt. to stand when you are not giving direct care? 6 feet when not giving direct care
Who should not be allowed to visit or care for the pt. w/ rad implant?? children under 18, pregnant women, woman who may beprgnant and not know it,
Created by: LPNin11