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Chapter 2 Vocabulary

Psych 199-Personality

the distinctive patterns of behavior, thoughts, and feelings that characterize a person's adjustments to the demands of life personality
theories based on Freud's view that clashes between different elements or forces within the personality shape behavior, thoughts, and emotions psychodynamic theories
in psychodynamic theory, the part of the mind whose contents are not in awareness but are capable of being brought into awareness by focusing of attention preconscious
in psychodynamic theory, the part of the mind whose contents are not available to ordinary awareness unconscious
in psychodynamic theory, a defense mechanism that protects the self from anxiety by keeping unacceptable wishes, impulses, and ideas out of awareness repression
Freud's method of exploring personality psychoanalysis
a blocking of thoughts whose awareness could cause anxiety resistance
in psyschodynamic theory, a hypothesized mental structure that helps explain different aspects of behavior psychic structures
the psychic structure, present at birth, that represents physiological drives and is fully unconscious Id
the guiding principle of the id, directing pursuit of instant gratification of instinctual demands without regard to social requirements or the needs of others pleasure principle
the second psychic structure to develop, characterized by self-awareness, planning, and the delay of gratification Ego
the guiding principle of the ego, directing pursuit of satisfaction of instinctual demands within the constraints of social living reality principle
in psychodynamic theory, an unconscious function of the ego that protects the self from anxiety-evoking material entering conscious awareness defense mechanism
the third psychic structure, which functions as a moral guardian and sets forth high standards for behavior superego
in psychodynamic theory, the incorporation within the personality of another person's moral standards, values, or behaviors identification
in psychodynamic theory, the basic instinct to preserve and perpetuate life eros
in psychoanalytic theory, the energy of eros; the sexual instinct. generally, sexual interest or drive libido
areas of the body that are sensitive to sexual sensations erogenous zones
in psychodynamic theory, the process by which libidinal energy is expressed through different erogenous zones during different stages of development psychosexual development
the first stage of psychosexual development, during which gratification is hypothesized to be attained primarily through oral activities oral stage
in psychodynamic theory, a form of arrested development, marked by the appearance of traits associated with an earlier stage of psychosexual development fixation
the second stage of psychosexual development, when gratification is attained through anal activities anal stage
the third stage of psychosexual development, characterized by a shift of libido to the phallic region phallic stage
a conflict of the phallic stage in which ssthe boy wishes to possess his mother sexually and perceives his father as a rival in love oedipus complex
a conflict of the phallic stage in which the girl longs for her gather and resents her mother electra complex
transferred displaced
a phase of psychosexual development characterized by repression of sexual impulses latency
the mature stage of psychosexual development, characterized by preferred expression of libido through intercourse within the context of marriage genital stage
Jung's psychodynamic theory, which emphasizes the collective unconscious and archetypes analytical psychology
Jung's hypothesized store of vague memories of our ancestral past collective unconscious
basic, primitive images or concepts hypothesized by Jung to reside in the collective unconscious archetypes
feelings of inferiority hypothesized by Adler to serve as a central motivating force in the personality inferiority complex
Adler's term for the desire to compensate for feeling of inferiority Drive for superiority
Adler's term for the self-aware part of the personality that directs goal-seeking efforts creative self
the term describing Adler's personality theory that emphasizes the uniqueness of the individual individual psychology
Erikson's theory of personality and development, which emphasizes social relationships and eight stages of personal growth psychosocial development
Erikson's term for a period of serious soul-searching about one's beliefs, values, and direction in life identity crisis
Erikson's term for the sense of who we are and what we stand for ego identity
an early school of psychology based on the belief that psychology should limit itself to the study of observable behavior behaviorism
a simple form of learning in which one stimulus comes to bring forth the response usually brought forth by a second stimulus a a result of being paired repeatedly with the second stimulus classical conditioning
a stimulus that elicits a response from an organism without learning unconditioned stimulus
an unlearned response; a response to an unconditioned stimulus unconditioned response
a previously neutral stimulus that elicits a conditioned response because it has been paired repeatedly with a stimulus that already brought forth that response conditioned stimulus
a response to a conditioned stimulus conditioned response
in classical conditioning, repeated presentation of the coordinated stimulus in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus, leading to the suspension of the conditioned response extinction
in classical conditioning, the eliciting of an extinguished conditioned response by a conditioned stimulus after some time has elapsed spontaneous recovery
a form of learning in which the frequency of behavior is increased by means of reinforcement or rewards operant conditioning
a reinforcer that increases the frequency of behavior when it is presented (i.e. food and approval) positive reinforcer
a reinforcer that increases the frequency of behavior when it is removed (i.e. pain, anxiety, & social disapproval) negative reinforcer
an unlearned reinforcer (i.e. food, water, warmth or pain) primary reinforcer
a stimulus that gains reinforcement value as a result of association with established reinforcers (i.e. money & social approval) secondary reinforcer
an unpleasant stimulus that suppresses behavior punishment
a cognitively oriented theory in which observational learning, values, & expectations play major roles in determining behavior (formerly termed social-learning theory) social-cognitive theory
Bandura's term for the social-cognitive view that people influence their environment just as their environment influences them reciprocal determinism
learning by observing the behavior of others observational learning/modeling
factors within the person (i.e. expectations & competencies) that influence behavior person variables
factors in the environment (i.e. rewards & punishments) that influence behavior situational variables
knowledge & skills that enable us to adapt to the demands we face in our social environment competencies
to symbolize, transform, or represent events or information encode
personal predictions about the outcome of events expectancies
beliefs about one's ability to perform specific tasks successfully self-efficacy expectations
the view that people are capable of free choice, self-fulfillment, & ethical behavior humanism
the view that people are completely free to choose their courses of action & are ultimately responsible for their actions existentialism
in humanistic theory, an innate tendency to strive to realize one's potential. self-initiated striving to become all one is capable of being self-actualization
Maslow's progression from basic, physiological needs to social needs to aesthetic & cognitive needs Hierarchy of needs
to Rogers, the center of our conscious experience that organizes how we relate to the world as a distinct individual self
one's unique patterning of perceptions & attitudes, according to which one evaluates events frames of reference
acceptance of others as having intrinsic merit regardless of their behavior at the moment. consistent expression of esteem for the value of another person unconditional positive regard
standards of worth standards by which the value of a person is judged
one's concepts of what one's capable of being self-ideals
a relatively stable aspect of personality that is inferred from behavior & assumed to give rise to consistent behavior trait
Eysenck's term for emotional instability neuroticism
a trait characterized by preference for solitary activities & tendencies to inhibit impulses introversion
a trait characterized by tendencies to be socially outgoing & to express feelings & impulses freely extraversion
chemicals in the nervous system that carry messages from one nerve cell, or neuron, to another neurotransmitters
the view that focuses on the roles of ethnicity, gender culture, & socioeconomic status in personality, behavior, & adjustment sociocultural theory
Created by: rrparikh23
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